Chair: Claire Fox
Young people, stigma and criminalisation
Author: Sučić Ines, Institute of Social Sciences Ivo Pilar
Institute of social sciences Ivo Pilar
Title: Do Young People Have More Negative Perceptions of the Police Than Adults? the Role of Age and Social Position in Attitudes Towards the Police
Prevalent opinion is that youth have more negative perception of the police than older citizens, rooted in their more frequently encountered negative contacts with the police. However, there is a lack of systematic research on differences in attitudes toward police between youth and adults. Thus, this study aims to explore: (1) the similarities and differences in contact with police, police related attitudes (perceived efficacy, fairness and legitimacy) and determinants of police legitimacy regarding age; (2) the role of social position and vulnerabilities among youth (discrimination experience, NEET status, income and loneliness) in the context of police related attitudes (perceived efficacy, fairness and legitimacy) and contact with police (including quality of contact). This analysis is based on quantitative data gathered from the European social survey Round 5 as part of the EU-funded PROMISE project. Findings are discussed in the context of invariance hypothesis within procedural justice theory as well as group position theory in the context of youth relation to police.
Keywords: Youth, contact with the police, police legitimacy, police effectiveness, procedural justice, NEET, Europe, ESS
Author: Deakin Jo, University of Manchester
Dr Claire Fox, University of Manchester
Dr Aimee Harragan, University of Manchester
Title: ‘Troubled’ Youth: Criminalisation and the ‘Disgust’ Agenda
In this paper we present our conceptual framework for an understanding of young people’s experiences of criminalisation. Based on findings from a UK-based case study, as part of a European collaborative study (PROMISE), our analysis focuses specifically on young people labelled as ‘troubled’ or ‘at risk of being drawn into criminal activity’. We explore their experiences of authorial controls via informal, formal and legal structures embedded within a ‘disgust’ agenda, their responses to the ‘at risk/troubled’ label, and identify the various contexts and agents of support.
Our framework draws on concepts of identity, structural inequality, marginalisation, abjection and stigma as key elements of young people’s experience, while notions of resistance, anger, apathy, resourcefulness and resilience shape the young people’s responses. Central to our framework is an analysis of the multiple types and sites of criminalisation from the perspectives of those experiencing it.
Keywords: Youthm Stigma, Criminalisation, Police, PROMISE
Author: Markina Anna, School of Law, University of Tartu
Title: Stigmatization as a Key Barrier to Reducing Recidivism in Young Offenders
This presentation is built on a qualitative case study of juvenile offenders in Estonia as part of the EU-funded PROMISE project. 23 in-depth interviews were conducted using photo elicitation and peer-research approaches. The young people interviewed for the project have histories of criminal offending, and the majority were on probation during the study. The research focuses on how criminal punishment and the subsequent stigmatisation influence young people’s lives. The research suggests that many young people experience stigmatisation in various spheres of their life: work, housing, relationship with the state institutions. Resulting alienation, exclusion, negative attitudes to the institutions and the state in general often result in re-offending and a pathway towards a criminal career.
Keywords: Youth, Stigma, stigmatisation, offending, probation, state institutions
Author: Matos Raquel, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, CEDH-Research Centre for Human Development
Filipe Martins, Alexandra Carneiro, Luísa Campos, Luísa Ribeiro, Mariana Negrao
Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, CEDH-Research Centre for Human Development
Title: From Stigmatization and Conflict to Social Participation: Opportunities and Challenges for Portuguese Youth
An ethnographic case study was carried out under the EU funded project PROMISE, which aims to understand how young people’s responses to the challenges they face can provide opportunities for participation and positive social change. In this case study, data were collected through participant observation and in-depth interviews to 26 Portuguese youngsters, 15 to 24 years old, engaged in educational and/or justice measures directed to young people with trajectories of school dropout, early trauma, violence and delinquency. This presentation explores the experiences of stigmatization and conflict faced by these youngsters, as well as the social practices carried out by them and by formal institutions to respond to these experiences. The preliminary analysis of the interviews evidences the youngsters’ ambivalent relations with control institutions, felt both as conflictive and supportive, as well as the stigmatization processes that reinforce risk and deviance pathways. Results will be discussed regarding their implications to promote positive social participation and (re)integration of vulnerable youth.
Keywords: Stigma, youth, risk, trauma, social change