Chair: Fernando Miró-Llinares
WG-PLACE: Surveys and interviews: substantive and methodological advances
Author: Buil-Gil David, University of Manchester
Title: Towards a Small Area Estimation Approach in Criminology. an Application to Perceived Neighbourhood Disorder in Manchester
Perceived disorder plays a vital role for urban citizens’ wellbeing. Residents can perceive the presence of teenagers walking around and public drinking as disorderly and threatening, but also time-persistent factors such as deteriorated housing and graffiti. Even the social meaning given to the concentration of minorities and neighbourhood poverty is frequently associated to urban disorder. It is necessary to have an accurate picture of the geographical distribution of perceived disorder at low area level to comprehend its individual and environmental predictors and design spatially focused interventions. In order to map perceived disorder at neighbourhood level, the most important source of information is sample surveys. These need to record big samples of citizens per small area in order to allow direct estimates of adequate precision. Unfortunately, most available sample surveys are designed to be representative of large areas and record small sample sizes at small area level. Thus, in order to produce reliable maps without need to record new data, model-based small area estimation approaches, which make use of already existing survey data and introduce models to borrow strength from related areas, are helpful to produce reliable estimates of variables of interest. This research aims to produce precise small area estimates of perceived disorder in Manchester and to discuss which neighbourhood-level covariates are significant to predict its spatial distribution.
Keywords: modelling; mapping; spatial correlation; synthetic; model-based
Author: Miró-Llinares Fernando, Miguel Hernandez University
Asier Moneva, Miguel Hernandez University
Title: Hunter or Prey? an Analysis of Cyberstalking Situational Profiles and Their Preferred Places
The aim of this study is to identify the profiles of those social network users with a higher risk of suffering or committing cyberstalking. To achieve this goal, we obtained a sample of Spanish non-university education students between 13 and 21 years old (N = 4197) through a questionnaire administered by their own teachers via an online platform. Once the stored data has been preprocessed, the dataset has been constructed for the analysis. This includes both variables related to the cyber places where the participants act and where they are victimized, as well as the personal data they openly publish in these places. Subsequently, an exhaustive exploratory analysis of the data has been conducted to obtain both dominant situational profiles of cyberoffenders and those of the victims of cyberstalking. The results show that situational profiles most likely associated with suffering or committing cyberstalking are very similar between offenders and victims. In addition, important information about the cyberplaces that they usually visit is provided.
Keywords: cyberstalking; CACC; situational profile; cyberplace; social network
Author: Quinn Anthony, Loughborough University
Louise Grove, Loughborough University
Title: An Examination of ‘Affordance’ and Situational Cues for Theft From Motor Vehicle
Much offending, particularly acts of acquisitive crime, is influenced by whether there is a discernible opportunity to take advantage of. The success of this can be determined by the presence or absence of certain characteristics in the immediate environment and how they are interpreted to facilitate gain by an offender. This study explores some of these techniques or ‘affordances’ that have been adopted by individuals when seeking to commit Theft from Motor Vehicle offences. This insight is gleaned through qualitative one-to-one interviews with participants who have received criminal convictions for this crime type. There is an evaluation of how offender awareness of affordances could lead to the vulnerability of certain contexts as subsequently, ideas of countermeasures against these offending opportunities are offered.
Keywords: theft from motor vehicle; offender perspectives; situational cues, micro place, affordance; environmental criminology
Author: Lammers Marre , National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)
Barbara Menting, Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR); Stijn Ruiter, Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR) & Utrecht University; Wim Bernasco, Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR) & Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Title: Activity Spaces and the Risk of Victimization
Where do people get victimized? Although there is a large body of research on the type of lifestyles and routine activities that affect the likelihood of victimization, little is known about the locations where people actually get victimized. Are people more likely victimized at places they frequently visit, or do they face more risk at places they do not know well. In the Online Activity Space Inventory Survey (OASIS), 186 respondents from a high-risk sample reported about their routinely visited places and places of victimization. All reported places were geocoded to any of the 12,822 unique neighborhoods in the Netherlands. Respondents also reported about the time spent at the nodes of their activity spaces, which allows us to assess how the risk of victimization relates to where people routinely spent time. Conditional logit models were used to test whether neighborhoods within people's activity spaces are more likely the places of victimization than those outside. We compare models with and without accounting for time spent in neighborhoods.
Keywords: activity space; victimization risk; Online Activity Space Inventory Survey (OASIS); neighborhoods; The Netherlands