Chair: Veronika Polišenská
WG-PLACE: Rethinking crime in space
Author: Barker Anna , University of Leeds
Adam Crawford, University of Leeds
Title: Everyday Encounters With Difference in Urban Parks: Forging ‘Openness to Othe rness’ in Segmenting Cities
Stuart Hall (1993) has argued that how we develop ‘the capacity to live with difference’ is the central question of our time. In light of fears over migration, crime and terrorism and in a world where socio-economic polarisation is overlain by insular, self-reinforcing cultural identities, mutual understanding is rendered increasingly vexed. Intolerance and social division have become pervasive features of segmenting cities, whilst ‘othering’ is a prevalent dynamic of exclusion and criminalisation. In recent years, however, public spaces –parks in particular– have been extolled as constituting crucial arenas in which to foster positive social relations and host encounters with difference that afford opportunities to bind strangers in mutual recognition and convivial co-presence. We offer a more limited and circumspect than hitherto understanding of the – nonetheless vital - role that public parks can play in fostering civic norms and ‘openness to otherness’ drawing on empirical research findings from the UK. We contend that the potency of parks in which to forge sociality derives from fleeting encounters, loose and unanticipated interactions and the weak ties that they promote, rather than the strong affective bonds of community that bind groups and solidify lines of difference. We argue that parks have a vital and distinctive capacity that can contribute to living with diversity; one that given the precarious future of parks needs to be accorded greater value and nurtured.
Keywords: urban parks; social encounters; living with difference; exclusion and criminalisation
Author: Fanghanel Alexandra , University of Greenwich
Title: Mapping Rape Culture: Nation and the Struggle for Social Justice
On December 31st 2016 throngs of men profited from the New Year’s festivities to sexually molest women revellers. At the time, it was widely reported in the press that the attackers of these women were predominantly men who were black and foreign. Initially, men seeking asylum from Syria were blamed for the attacks, subsequently it was discovered that man of these perpetrators were from North Africa. These attacks, in Cologne and in other parts of Germany, sparked nationalist backlashes which continue to reverberate around Europe. This paper explores how this manifested itself into a form of cartography of migrant sex crime against women which has since been used to mobilise ideologies of state and of belonging, not least in pro-Brexit discourses. Across the spectrum of the political right and the political left rhetoric about the female body – violated by the Black Other – has been mobilised as both crucible and synecdoche for the forging of a vision of nationhood. This paper considers some of the implications of the discourses expressed here, which mobilise the figure of the woman-as-victim and enshrines rape culture within the fabric of the nation. ?
Keywords: rape culture; nationhood; fear of crime; Brexit; cartograph; racism
Author: Polišenská Veronika, University of Finance and Administration
Title: Home as a Barrier to Desist or Commit Crime
The concept of home for released offenders has two meanings. It can be a protective factor in terms of desisting to commit crime or it can be a risk factor in terms of increasing the possibility of returning to criminal career. Good Lives Model is a strength-based approach to offender rehabilitation (Ward, 2002). Within the Good Lives Model, there are 11 primary goods, which are activities or situations which benefit the individual (Purvis, 2010). The concept of home can be represented in several of them. Moreover, the GLM defines criminogenic needs as obstacles in achieving primary goods (Barnao, Robertson, Ward, 2016), which again can be represented within the concept of home. The current presentation will aim at the conceptualization of home within the Good Lives Model.
Keywords: home; protective factor; risk factor; Good Lives Model