Chair: Majone Steketee
Testing theory through Cross-National Data (ISRD)
Author: Stevkovic Ljiljana, Faculty of Special Education and Rehabilitation University of Belgrade
Anastasiya Monnet Lukash
University St. Gallen
University St. Gallen
Title: Drinking Alcohol and Taking Cannabis in Serbia, Switzerland and Ukraine - Testing Main Criminological the ories: Results of the Third International Self-Report Delinquency Study (Isrd3)
Alcohol and cannabis use are factors of delinquent behavior confirmed in many studies of juvenile delinquency. On the other hand, drinking alcohol and cannabis use are forms of delinquent behavior itself that are widespread among youth globally. Substance use affects all aspects of juveniles' life, from family relationships, through school achievement, to leisure time and how and with whom they spend it. Also, these aspects of juveniles' life can contribute to their tendency to drink alcohol or use drugs. This paper aims to present results of comparison of substance use and its predictors in Serbia, Switzerland, and Ukraine, based on the ISRD3 data. Serbian and Swiss juveniles reported a higher prevalence of drinking alcohol ever, reporting binge-drinking, and cannabis use than in Ukraine. Different forms of parental control, spending leisure time, and having delinquent friends seem to be the most powerful explanatory variables across selected cultures. During the presentation, we will provide descriptive and multivariate results to explain these differences over countries, as well as main criminological theories, like general theory crime of and routine activity theory, will be tested.
Keywords: ISRD, Serbia, Switzerland, Ukraine , alcohol, drugs, theory
Author: De Buck Ann, Ghent University-IRCP
Lieven J.R. Pauwels (Ghent University-IRCP)
Dirk Enzmann (Hamburg University)
Title: Are Impulsive Adolescents Differentially Vulnerable to Normative or Situational Peer Influences ? an Exploratory Study.
Ample research in criminology investigates the role of deviant peers in the development of adolescent’s delinquency. Different theoretical explanations account for distinct peer influences. The socialisation perspective argues that deviant peers influence behaviour through the provision of norms and values whereas the situational perspective argues that deviant peers provide situational opportunities for deviant behaviour. This exploratory study is based on Thomas and Mc Gloin ‘s study of dual processes, differential peer effects and adolescent offending. We address the question to what extent trait impulsivity affects social and situational peer processes controlling for parental supervision, family bond, school bond and deviant norms. Analysis of the cross-national ISRD-3 data suggest that adolescents at the edges of trait impulsivity are differentially vulnerable to the effects of deviant peer processes. However the findings need to be nuanced. We discuss the contribution of the current study for a more qualified understanding of the interplay between individual characteristics and exposure to deviant peers.
Keywords: Normative peer influence - situational peer influence - impulsivity - adolescent offending – ISRD
Author: Rensi Regina, Department of Health Sciences-Division of Forensic Medical Sciences
Department of Health Sciences-Division of Forensic Medical Sciences
Title: Parental Presence and Youth Victimization in Italy: International Self-Report Delinquency Study (Isrd3) Results
The current study is based on an in-depth international survey, International Self-Report Delinquency Study-3 (ISRD-3), aimed at studying the relationship between parental presence/absence, perception of emotional support by parents and juvenile victimization.The data have been collected by a questionnaire ISRD-3 administered to an Italian sample of 3.508 students from 7th to 9th grade.The results show that adolescents who live in monoparental families or with other people (grandparents, uncles, other relatives etc.), are more victimized. Moreover, paying attention to the perception that the adolescent has of parental emotional support, it appears that a low perception corresponds to a greater victimization experienced. The research suggests that the intervention strategies on juvenile victimization should involve all family members and have as main objective the improvement of the quality of relationships.
Keywords: parental presence ? emotional support? victimization? adolescents ? Italy ISRD
Author: Rocca Gabriele, Department of Health Sciences, Section of Criminology, University of Genoa
Alfredo Verde, Department of Health Sciences, Section of Criminology, University of Genoa
Uberto Gatti, Department of Health Sciences, Section of Criminology, University of Genoa
Title: Is Male Gender Still a Risk Factor for Juvenile Delinquency? Results From the Isrd Study in 26 Countries
It is known as the male gender is traditionally considered a specific risk factor for juvenile delinquency. In recent years, however, several studies have reported a steady increase in the involvement of girls in deviant behaviour, so as to hypothesize that the gap between the two sexes is closing. In order to investigate the role of gender differences in the development of juvenile delinquency, we analysed the data entered into the database related to International Self-Report Delinquency Study 2 (ISRD-2) and 3 (ISRD-3), and we selected a sample of young people aged between 12 and 16 years, of both sexes, from 26 countries (N=34.199 and N=61.040).
The research focused chiefly on the differences between males and females with regard to the type and gravity of offences committed, the onset of deviant behaviour, the probability of being apprehended by the police and the probability of victimisation, comparing the two waves of the study.
Differences in antisocial behaviour between males and females vary from one country to another. Nevertheless, male gender still proved to be a specific risk factor for juvenile delinquency, particularly for serious crimes. From the chronological standpoint, juvenile delinquency increases as age increases, while the ratio between male and female delinquency does not change significantly with age. Comparing the two waves of ISRD, we noticed a convergence between male and female.
Keywords: ISRD, gender, victimisation, juvenile delinquency