Chair: David Wall
TAKEDOWN: Organised Crime and Terrorist Networks
Author: Musotto Roberto, University of Leeds
David Wall, University of Leeds
Title: Understanding Transnational Organised Crime Groups as Social Networks in a Changing Socio-Political and Socio-Technical Landscape
The internet has not only changed the ways that crime is organised and committed in terms of the perpetration of crime, especially transnational and virtual crimes but, it has also changed the nature and meaning of the organised aspect of organised crime. Which raises the question: to what extent, do we now have internet-type mafias that protect criminal operatives under their wing and also protect their market for victims? In what ways has the internet changed the organisation of crime behind the criminals? More fundamentally, how has the internet transformed the development and organisation of Transnational Organised and Virtual Crimes? In this paper we introduce a new framework of models (or ideal types) for understanding these changes and answering the questions. It is a framework of models that reflects the evolution of organised crime from sustainable through to ephemeral patterns, with a range of hybrids sitting in between. Each model will be explored through a social network analysis of the various organisational types. The paper also considers organised (and transnational) crime groups and terrorist networks within a changing socio-political and socio-technical landscape and it will employ the different perspectives generated to understand the different aspects of organised crime and terrorism.
Keywords: ORGANISED CRIME, TERRORIST NETWORKS, CYBERCRIME SOCIAL NETWORK ANALISYS
Author: Ruggiero Vincenzo, University of Middlesex
Title: Institutional Violence
Institutional violence is defined in this paper as the outcome of violations perpetrated by individuals and groups against their own official principles and philosophies. State agents violating their own written norms who engage in abuse, torture, and killing are cases in point. Other examples are firms causing death and lethal diseases while violating health and safety regulations. This paper examines how institutional violence may trigger lawmaking mechanisms, in the sense that it creates important precedents and, undetected or tolerated, re-writes the international law and re-founds the principles of justice.
Keywords: Institutional Violence, Torture
Author: Yuste Martínez Inmaculada, University of Granada
Title: Cubs of the Caliphate: Minors at the Service of the Islamic State
Children are victims of attacks due to disregard of International norms. IS suffered in Syria almost 300 casualties of minors, the Cubs of the Caliphate. Diverse groups recruited children in different roles. The growth of minors’ recruitment in conflict areas is evident. Many cases show the use of children to carry out terrorist attacks is gaining greater prominence. This occurs because of the ease to recruit a child and shows how little protection they have. This situation has been the result of violation of International standards and laws. The prohibition of attacking civilian targets, not only has not been respected, but systematically breached. The safeguard of children rights has been a failure. Children are the future of society, their care is our priority. By avoiding the recruitment, we hurt Jihadism sustainability. It is necessary to create alternatives for children. It is essential to respect existing International legislation, to fight against new recruitment channels for minors. The question is whether we want to apply International laws or International community is not interested in that. It is useless to create tools or initiatives if we do not comply with those that already exist. This paper analyzes why minors are an easy target for organizations as IS and how recruitment and use of minors by IS is different from others. It focuses on existing International legal framework and tools to protect children’s rights.
Keywords: Jihadism, unaccompanied minors, children, terrorist attacks, IS, recruitment