Chair: Helmut Kury, University of Freiburg, Max-Planck-Institute for foreign and international penal law (pens.),

Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Central European Countries: Reality, Politics and Creation of Fear Societies

Building: G
Room: 12

Author: Lévay Miklós, Eötvös Loránd University Faculty of Law Department of Criminology

Title: The Case of Hungary
The so-called migration 'crisis' reached Hungary in 2015. The main features of the Hungarian Government's policy regarding illegal migration and refugees has follows: (i) stressing the security-related aspects of migration, especially in the communication towards the public and in law making; (ii) growing merger of crime control and immigration control or 'crimmigration' (Stumpf 2006, Guia et al. 2011, Van der Woude et al. 2017); (iii) diverting migrants away from Hungary as a transit country by physically closing the Southern border (by building a fence) and also criminalising the acts of the damaging the fence and illegal crossing the border closure; (iv) making migration law and refugee law more strict; (v) stressing the importance of the protection of national identity and sovereignity against 'Brussels'. The paper discusses these features of the Hungarian Government's policy based on analyses policy and other documents as well as the 2018 general election campaign. Crime contrpl policy in relation to the migration 'crisis' will be discussed in detail.
Keywords: Refugees, Crimmigration, Hungary
Author: Rzeplinska Irena, Institute of Law Studies Polish Academy of Sciences

Klaus, Witold; Institute of Law Studies Polish Academy of Sciences
Title: The Case of Poland
The article considers how the so-called migration "crisis" in 2015/2016 affected three Central European Countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. We present - in part about Poland: first - movements of refugees into Poland after 1989 with analysis of number of applications for refugees status submitted in the years 1991-2016. Second - new legal provisions and public policies in time of so-called migration "crisis" against migrants. Third - attitudes of Poles towards refugees after 2015. Fourth - prejudice motivated crime against migrants. In conclusions, authors try to explain what happened in Poland after 2015: in government position, politics opinion and peoples attitudes to migrants and asylum seekers. What is the role of politicians and authority in creation of fear of migrants and asylum seekers in socities and what are the reasons ?
Keywords: Migration "crisis", prejudice motivated crime against migrants, Poland
Author: Scheinost Miroslav, Institute of Criminology and Social Prevention

Title: The Case of the Czech Republic
Paper presents the situation in the CR as a Central European country in connection with the so-called 'migration crisis' in 2015. Initially the historical background with regard to the number of people of non-Czech nationality in the CR is presented. After the Second Word War the national and ethnic composition of the society was not very diverse; there had been little need to adapt to different nationalities, cultures and ways of life. Only after the so-called Velvet Revolution (1989) and the subsequent transformation of society, politics and economy borders opened for people coming from different parts of Europe and the world in growing numbers. Nevertheless migration to the CR from Asian countries where Islam is the dominant religion or from African countries has so far been rather irrelevant. But the impact of so-called migration crisis on public opinion, attitudes to migrants and fear of crimes was significant. Author presents the basic legal provisions and measures, especially the government's Strategy on Migration Policy adopted in 2015 and the social discourse with the issue of migration and foreigners.
Keywords: the Czech Government's Strategy on Migration Policy, social discourse on migration, the Czech Republic
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