Chair: Helene O. I. Gundhus
Proliferation of new logics in policing
Author: Gundhus Helene O. I. , University of Oslo
Christin Wathne, Oslo Metropolitan University; Niri Talberg, FAFO
Title: Intelligence in Police Practice. Towards Hidden and Remote Crime Control?
The ‘Proximity police reform’ in Norway depends on new technologies and digitalization of police processes to achieve it aims. In an ongoing project exploring shifts in police institutional logics and practices, we are examining how the use of intelligence and predictive policing technologies are influencing police-citizen interaction. Predictive policing is used to forecast future crimes, offenders, perpetrators and victims, and improve intervention strategies. In this paper we look at how it affects social interaction, exchange of knowledge and dynamics with the citizens. What are different intelligence products, contributing with of new knowledge? Who are targeted and who are not selected as risks, and how is this connected to race, gender and age? To what degree is the collected data biased by power-relation, politics or business interests? Based on empirical research on the police perceptions and narratives, the aim is to theorize shift towards envisioned securitization assemblages in police practice. Equipped with less social knowledge while patrolling, the police are at risk of perceiving the environment as "more dangerous”. The combination of centralizing forces, management-by–objectives and automatization of the risk analysis seem to pull policing role in a more repressive direction, but there are also indications of a more remote police role, collaborating with other actors and policing-at-a-distance.
Keywords: Predictive policing, police-citizen encounters, technology, security assemblage, intelligence-led policing
Author: Larsson Paul, Norwegian Police University College
Title: On the Hunt. Aspects of the Use of Communication Control in Norway
In this paper I explore the use of communication control and wiretapping to combat illegal wolf hunting. The investigation of illegal hunting is beset with many of the problems associated with other crimes of ‘high policing’ (Brodeur 2010). The police have to uncover most of the evidence themselves; the quality of witnesses, if there are any, can be dubious. They have to build cases. This is a traditional form of intelligence-led policing, involving the use of data from covert investigations if there are no open sources. Such methods have been used for decades against illegal hunting and wildlife crimes in the US, but have a much shorter history in Norway. It is therefore part of a bigger overall picture where ‘new’ investigative approaches and tools are used in novel areas A precondition for the use of covert investigation methods in this context, is that the legal definition of the crime might be termed ‘organised’. In this paper I discuss the underlying debates about conception of it as organised, and rule of law aspects with communication control as a form of covert investigation.
Keywords: Communication control, organised crime, illegal wolf hunting, covert investigation
Author: Lomell Heidi Mork, University of Oslo
Title: Investigation or Instigation? Enforcing Grooming Legislation
This presentation will look at the policing practices that has developed after online grooming was criminalized in Norway in 2007. Online grooming is a cybercrime. This gives the police – and anyone else – the chance to exploit the same anonymity as is used by offenders to operate online and engage with actual or potential offenders. A striking feature of the few Norwegian grooming convictions to date is that they involve deception and entrapment-like behaviour, not by the police, but either on the part of parents, or of those who might be called ‘digital vigilantes’ – posing as children online. Instead of a police officer, a vigilant parent or person poses as a child and agrees to or suggests a physical meeting with the offender. Digital vigilantism consists not only of deception and/or entrapment, but also of public humiliation and social media exposure of the alleged offender. The techniques and methods used go beyond acceptable policing practices. Digital vigilantism such as the Norwegian group ‘Children’s safety’ might not mark a break with traditional policing, but rather a renegotiation of the boundaries between state and populist policing. Digital vigilantism can be understood as citizens acting in the way they believe the police should, thereby blurring the boundaries between state and populist policing.
Keywords: Policing, digital vigilantes, grooming
Author: Sogaard Thomas Friis, Centre of Alcohol and Drug Research, Aarhus University
Title: Outsourcing Police Work: Multiple Partnering and Knowledge Exchange in Nightlife Plural Policing of Gangs
The organization of policing is undergoing significant changes. Among the most important are the promotion of intelligence-led policing, and the formation of pluralized policing partnerships. Little research however has focused on how information exchange shapes the daily working of policing partnerships. The research that does exist tends to be dominated by state- centric perspectives, where police is depicted as a senior partner that produces and disseminates relevant information to external junior partners. In this presentation, we argue for the need of a more nuanced understanding of the diversity of public-private partnering and inter-organizational information flows. We suggest that an open-ended 'processual-relational approach', and a focus on the various exchanges, movements and flows of information between police and non-police actors, can be used as an analytical prism to examine the complexity of partnership policing. We illustrate this by use of a qualitative study of how the practical enactment of a police-promoted no-access policy on gang-related individuals in Danish nightlife, is shaped by multiple information processes, different moral scripts and the simultaneous working of three forms of police-bouncer partnering which we term 'junior partnering', 'entrepreneurial partnering' and 'competitive partnering'.
Keywords: Intelligence-led policing, pluralized policing partnerships, Danish nightlife, police-bouncer partnering