Chair: Adam Crawford

Plural Policing

Building: E
Room: 01

Author: White Adam, University of Sheffield

Logan Puck, University of California
Title: Convergence and Divergence in Plural Policing: a Comparison of Police-Private Security Relations in Mexico and the United Kingdom
Recent scholarship on plural policing has started to differentiate between two divergent global trajectories. The first is found in a series of much studied countries in the Global North - in particular the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia – where police forces and private security companies are increasingly forging partnerships with one another in the context of the neoliberal policy paradigm. The second is found in a series of much less studied countries in the Global South – such as Brazil, Indonesia, India and Kenya – where police forces and private security companies exist in a more fragmented and fractured relationship against the backdrop of institutional corruption and socioeconomic inequality. The paper seeks to nuance this depiction through a Bourdieu-inspired comparative analysis of police-private security relations in Mexico and the United Kingdom. It identifies not only familiar patterns of divergence, but also notable instances of convergence, such as the attempt by private security companies in both countries to appropriate symbolic capital from the police.
Keywords: Police, Private Security, Legitimacy, Symbolic Capital
Author: Stenning Philip, Griffith University

Title: Arresting Resistance: the Future for ‘Plural Policing’
Plural provision of policing has been the reality for most of human history and is the inescapable reality all over the world in the 21st Century. Yet ever since the attempted establishment of a state monopoly over policing provision in Europe, and its export to other parts of the world through imperialism and colonization, in the 18th and 19th Centuries, recognition of this reality has been resisted and officially denied by ‘public police’ and by the governments which have sponsored them. In this paper, I examine this discourse of resistance and denial, and the ideological arguments deployed to support it, which persist to this day. I then consider whether the ‘inconvenient truth’ of plural policing provision has any chance of becoming an accepted orthodoxy, and the foundation of new ‘policing’ policy and practice, in the foreseeable future.
Keywords: plural policing, policy, practice, state monopoly
Author: Solar Carlos, University of Oxford

Title: Digital Pax Latin Americana: Middle Powers and Cybersecurity Governance
The recent wave of cybersecurity measures in advanced countries has been echoed by the middle powers. An array of national cybersecurity strategies is beginning to fill a void in areas that depend strategically on digital technologies, for example, defence, policing, financial trade, and critical infrastructure. Networked policy communities, increasingly led by the military, have been set up among multiple state and non-state bodies dealing on a daily-basis with issues of a human security nature, now including cybersecurity. To illustrate what challenges such governance efforts are confronting, this paper explores the digital pax Latin Americana to argue that while state-to-state cyber warfare in the region is nominal, the militarisation of cybersecurity networked governance can prompt unwanted rivalries, as evidenced in the ongoing cyber clashes between eastern and western superpowers. The digital pax Latin Americana is thus explored as a double-edged sword, where despite global governance norms, what prevails the most is the middle states’ own cyber protection of strategic national priorities.
Keywords: cybersecurity, networked governance, Latin America
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