Chair: Dina Siegel
One Belt One Road - Organised Crime and Corruption - part 1
Author: Scheinost Miroslav, Institute of Criminology
Title: Organised Crime in the Country in Transition and the Possible Impact of Obor – Czech Republic Case
After so-called Velvet revolution in 1989 Czech Republic underwent the profound political, economic and social change. The character of crime before this change has been not fully comparable with the new trends in crime but it was evident that on the background of rise in crime in general the Czech Republic faced the infiltration of organised crime activities and groups from abroad as well as the development of organised criminal activities of domestic origin.
Author mentions the reasons, domestic and international factors that influenced this development and tries to explain this development using theoretical models of the phenomenon of organised crime. He analyses the nexus between economic and organised crime. The attempt of some kind of prediction is formulated as well as the hypotheses about the possible influence of OBOR on the penetration and spreading of organised crime activities.
Keywords: organised crime, economic crime, transit period
Author: Plywaczewski Emil, University of Bialystok
Title: Organized Crime and Its Control From Central European Perspective
The main political and organizational changes at the beginning of the 1990s had its consequences during the time of transformation in Central Europe. The most important consequences of transition include such issues as transforming police, changes in structure and forms of crime, fear of crime and migrations. The author stresses that the dynamic and practically undisturbed development of organized crime resulted from, among others factors, wrong political decisions
The authordescribes process of creating the system for combating organized crime, including setting up the special task in Police and providing state agencies with new legal instruments, such crown (immunity witness) or undercover operation. The most threatening criminal groups in Poland, related with the organized crime of other states were neutralized. The break of the criminal solidarity of many groups, is also the serious breach and the blow into the organized crime.
Moreover, the paper stresses the importance of international cooperation in fighting crime, particularly organized criminal activities, as well as the role of the Interpol, Europol and the Schengen agreement in taking initiatives aimed at eradicating crime. The concluding part of the paper shows the newest Polish initiatives concerning combating organized crime, including its transnational forms.
Keywords: Central Europe, Police cooperation, criminal justice
Author: Gilinskiy Yakov, Pedagogical Institute
Title: Organized Crime in Contemporary Russia
Organized crime is the functioning of stable, hierarchical associations, engaged in crime as a form of business, and setting up a system of protection against public control by means of corruption. Organized crime is a form of business enterprise. There are some periods of Russian organized crime.
From the end of the 1970s onwards we observe the rise of a new generation of criminals (the so-called "sportsmen" or "bandits") and, more generally, the forming of contemporary organized crime.
Secondly, the medium 1980s - a medium 1990s years is a formation and shaping "persisting" organized crime.
Third, from medium 90s to beginning 2000s is a period of the bloom "traditional" organized crime and gradual introduction it in organ of power, legal business and abroad.
Fourth, it is contemporary period (from beginning-middle 2000s) with unique particularity, which can be not explained with standpoint of the usual features organized crime. Criminal organizations, like other social organizations, strive to exert influence on the state power and to exercise control over it (through lobbying, bribery, infiltration of their representatives into power structures, etc.). There is new state, form of the Russian organized crime. It is an amalgamation, union of criminal organizations, business (legal and semi-legal), power structures and police. Indivisible ball of criminal, power, business and police structures control regions and country.
Keywords: criminal organisations, corruption, illegal business
Author: Dobryninas Aleksandras, Vilnius University
Title: Corruption and Anticorruption Policy in Lithuania
The negative attitudes toward corruption among business elites and public at large in Lithuanian society were and still remain high.
Over the last 20 years Lithuania has made a considerable progress in building institutional anti-corruption network, prosecuting corrupted individuals, strengthening corruption prevention measures, and supporting anticorruption values in society. However, the problem of corruption stays persistent in Lithuanian society. Areas of political corruption, cross-sectorial corruption (local government, health sector, public procurement, and others), as well as existing popular belief, that “bribes work” still require closer attention from the side of political leaders, law enforcement and civil society.
First, it worth to discuss the historical and theoretical development of the perceiving of corruption and its impact on the design and construction of the anticorruption policy in Lithuania. Second, it is important to point on the peculiarities of the anticorruption policy and its assessment in the context of international and national tools used for monitoring of corruption and anticorruption efforts in the country. Third, the practical aspects of the implementation of the anticorruption policy in the country can be assessed through the analysis of decisions of the Lithuanian courts in criminal cases on corrupt offences.
Keywords: corruption, anti-corruption policies, business