Chair: Wing Lo
One Belt One Road (OBOR) part 2
Author: Lo Wing, City University Hong Kong
Title: Triads on One Belt One Road
China enters a new age of improved social security under President Xi Jinping’s reign. According to Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, thousands of official were disciplined as of January 2018. Xi’s determination against corruption of officials and the outflow of corrupt money can be seen in the kidnapping of the CEO of Tomorrow’s Holding on Hong Kong grounds and the prosecution of Anbang’s CEO. Both companies were forced to liquidate their assets overseas to retrieve the corrupt money. The State Council also released a statement “Relating the Initiation of Combating Triads and Eradicating Evil Notification” to signify President Xi’s determination to uproot both the criminals and the officials acting as their protective umbrellas behind them. Triad criminals will be forced to leave and continue their operations elsewhere. The political and social instability of One Belt One Road (OBOR) countries will create demands for protection service from Chinese investors. Broken Tooth, a triad leader in Macau, established a “Hung Mun Security Company” to protect the legal benefits of the Chinese merchants on OBOR. Transnationalization of triads tends to occur where triad members utilize their triad identity, reputation, hierarchical status, and triad networks to develop social capital, acquiring criminal resources and opportunities embedded in the structural networks for organized crime operations.
Keywords: OBOR, corruption, organised crime
Author: Siegel Dina, Utrecht University
Title: Organized Crime in Kazakhstan
The same factors that make Kazakhstan attractive for the economic cooperation such as geographic position and relatively high level of economic development, makes the country vulnerable to the activities of transnational criminal organizations such as the Russian mafia and Chinese triads, as well as less famous local criminal groups. Drugs trafficking and other criminal activities and widespread corrupt relationships were taking place long enough to become tolerated, if not supported, by the population. However, the increased number of prosecutions against corruption on each level and within significant number of state institutions demonstrates the government’s serious interest in making of the government to make Kazakhstan a more transparent and reliable business partner.
Therefore, the significant economic investment that has been received by Kazakhstani government has received as a result of the One Road - One Belt program could may potentially create a significant number of incentives that encourage officials to effectively address corruption and organized crime
Keywords: drugs, corruption, ethnic criminal groups
Author: Van Uhm Daan, Utrecht University
Title: Chinese Criminal Wildlife Networks Along the Silk Road
The illegal wildlife trade has become a global criminal enterprise, following in the footsteps of drugs and weapons. China is one of the major players in the illegal wildlife trade, in particular in the illegal trade in traditional Chinese medicine with parts of endangered species, including tiger bones, rhino horn and pangolin scales. The new plans for the improvement of the Silk Road, the ancient trade route that once ran between China and the West during the days of the Roman Empire, may provide new opportunities for criminal networks involved in wildlife trafficking. Therefore, this presentation will focus on the (social) organization of criminal groups involved in the illegal trade in wildlife along the terrestrial and maritime Silk Road.
Keywords: illegal wildlife trade, organised crime, China
Author: Wong Rebecca, City University of Hong Kong
Title: A Crime Script Analysis of Supplying State Protected Wildlife as Food in Mainland China
Using techniques of crime script analysis, over 500 relevant cases from courts all across China were collected and analyzed. In doing so, this study identify the stages involved from the poaching of the State protected wildlife in its natural habitat to being cooked and served as delicacy. The theoretical implications of understanding the illegal supply of State protected wildlife in separate stages can generate insights into the procedural aspects and requirements in the commission of this crime and to identify appropriate point of intervention to inform policies.
Keywords: Wildlife crime, crime scripts, China,