Chair: Sebastian Roché and Mike Hough
Minority Youth, institutions and Social Integration (ISRD)
Author: Enzmann Dirk, Faculty of Law, University of Hamburg
Ilka Kammigan, Helmut-Schmidt-University, Hamburg
Title: Parental Violence, Deprivation, and Migration Background
This paper explores the prevalence and predictors of parental violence against children. Using the 27 countries in the 2017 dataset of ISRD3, it shows very wide variations across country. Clear correlations also emerged across country between the prevalence of parental physical punishment and that of more serious physical abuse. The hypothesized relationships between parental use of violence and poverty and deprivation (measured by the Human Development Index) was not initially found. However, migrant status was clearly a significant predictor, and when this was taken into account in analysis, a correlation between parental violence and HDI scores become visible. The chapter used data from a sub-projects of ISRD3, Understanding and Preventing Youth Crime (UPYC) to test different hypotheses for the higher rates of parental violence. Support was found both for the importation hypothesis and the deprivation hypothesis. It was expected that the predictive effect of migrant status would disappear when deprivation variables were included in the analysis. However, controlling for deprivation attenuated the relationship between migrant status and use of parental violence, but did not make it disappear completely – offering some support for both competing hypotheses.
Keywords: Parenting style, poverty, migration, youth victimization, international schools surveys
Author: Roché Sebastian , CNRS, Sciences-Po, Grenoble-Alpes University
Title: Religion and Attitudes Toward State Organizations: the Case of Schools. a Comparison Across Five Countries
We explore the links between religion / religiosity and school attitudes among of junior high school students in five countries (France, Germany, the Netherlands, the UK and the US). Socialization of children is undertaken, in part, through schools that equip them with skills, instill values, and impose rules and sanctions (compulsory attendance, behavioral standards). Attachment or detachment vis-a-vis school may be critical in the socialization of children, and their integration into broader society. Using multilevel models, and controlling for socio-economic indicators, we find small effects of religious denomination (Muslim pupils being less attached) and religiosity (more religious children being more attached), as well as that of minority concentration (attending schools with minority concentration leads to lower attachment). This is an important finding, indicating that while such effects can be statistically significant, the main causes do not lie in variables related to religion or religiosity. Even in countries such as France and the UK where ethnicity, a variable interlinked with denomination, is a predictor of more distrust and tensions with the police, such a mechanism does not appear to be strong regarding schools. Survey data are from the UPYC data set and the ISDR3 questionnaire.
Keywords: school attachment, religion, religiosity, ISRD
Author: van der Gaag Renske, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Majone Steketee, Verwey-Jonker Institute, and Erasmus University, Rotterdam
Title: Direct and Indirect Influences of School System on Youth Delinquent Offending Among Migrant and Native-Born Students in Eight Countries
Stratified school systems select children into different educational tracks according to ability, in some countries as early as age 10. Tracks substantially determine future education and career opportunities. Comprehensive school system have no such selection before age 15. Children with a migrant background are often overrepresented in lower tracks and possible negative consquences may affect them more than native-born children. We use data from the third wave of the International Self-Report Delinquency study (ISRD3) to examine direct and indirect influences of school system on self-reported life time offending of native and migrant students in eight countries, four countries with comprehensive and four with stratified school systems. We find that migrant students are indeed overrepresented in lower tracks and report higher levels of offending across all tracks than native students. No such differences exist for comprehensive systems. Our analysis also shows a stronger (direct) relationship between lower track enrollment and offending for migrant than for native students, while (indirect) protective influences in the school system are reduced and risk influences are magnified for migrant students.
Keywords: Youth delinquency, offending, migrant, native, tracking, school system
Author: Farren Diego, Institute of Criminology, Universität Hamburg
Mike Hough, Birkbeck, University of London
Title: Teenagers’ Perceptions of Legitimacy and Preparedness to Break the Law: the Impact of Migrant and Ethnic Minority Status
This paper first examines the relationships between migrant status and variables relevant to procedural justice theory (mainly perceptions of procedural fairness and of legitimacy) and self-reported crime, amongst five ISRD countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, the UK (disaggregated here into English and Scottish sub-samples) and the US. In four out of the six countries and in the analyses combining all six countries, migration has an effect consistent with most previous studies, namely migrants confer less trust and legitimacy on the police. The second part of the paper examines factors that appear to mediate these effects. Living in conditions of disadvantage and in disorganised neighbourhoods explains almost completely the correlation that we observe between migrant status and perceptions of legitimacy. In the third and final part of the paper we look deeper into the effect of migration on trust, legitimacy and self-reported offending by also incorporating ethnic minority status into the analysis. It is shown that minority status is the main driver of the effects apparently associated with migrant status. These results are interpreted in terms of the histories of integration – or of failed integration – of migrants from visible ethnic minorities into the host population. Implications for public policy and social science are discussed.
Keywords: Procedural justice theory, group position, legitimacy, migrant backgrounds, ethnic minorities, youth