Chair: Ilka Kammigan
How Generalizable is the Importance of Self-Control? Insights from the International Self-Report Delinquency Project (ISRD)
Author: Leitgob Heinz, Universiy of Eichstaett-Ingolstadt
Daniel Seddig,Universiy of Cologne, Germany & Universiy of Zurich
Dirk Enzmann, University of Hamburg
Title: Cross-Cultural Comparability and Measurement Invariance of the 9-Item Self-Control Scale From Isrd3
Cross-cultural comparative research is gaining relevance in contemporary empirical criminology. In order to draw substantive conclusions from comparisons of variables explaining criminal behavior, it is necessary that the measures are equivalent across cultural contexts. However, in many cases measurement invariance is only assumed, but not tested. We demonstrate how to test for measurement invariance of the 9-item version of the Gras- mick self-control scale across 27 European, American, and Asian coun- tries with data from the third round of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD3). We apply state-of-the-art methodology that is based on multiple group confirmatory factor analysis for categorical data, an equiv-alent to the graded response model from item response theory. Further- more, we apply the more flexible alignment procedure to test for approximate measurement invariance in case the stricter approaches indicate non- invariance. Results indicate that only weak measurement invariance of the self-control scale exists for all 27 countries. Systematic non-invariance can be demonstrated for the item thresholds (difficulty parameters) even when the alignment procedure is used. Thus, cross-cultural differences of self- control mean scores should be interpreted with caution.
Keywords: ISRD, methodology, cross-national
Author: Steketee Majone, Verwey-Jonker institute and Erasmus University
Ineke Haen Marshall, Northeastern University
Title: The Intergenerational Transmission of Low Self-Control and Its Effects on Delinquency
There is extensive research showing how childhood exposure to violence and maltreatment in the family increases the risk of subsequent victimization and delinquent behaviour and attitudes. There is also vast line of literature showing that antisocial behaviors and personality traits are transmitted across generational lines (Boutwell and Beaver 2010), including the notion that levels of self-control are passed from parent to child. Recently, researchers have also started investigating associations between parental self-control and family functioning (Meldrum et al, 2017). In this paper, we speculate that parental reliance on physical discipline (ranging from milder forms such as a slap on the bottom to more extreme forms which may be viewed as child abuse) may be viewed as evidence of low parental self-control and as such is correlated with self-control of children. We expect that children’s low self-control, as well as family functioning, are mediating factors in the link between parental maltreatment (i.e. low parental self-control) and aggressive delinquency. Our general contention is that this relationship will be observed cross-nationally, allowing for national variations in the magnitude of this relationship. These expectations are tested using data of the third international self-report delinquency study (ISRD3) conducted in larger cities of 27 American, Asian, and European countries (n = 62,360)
Keywords: ISRD, self-control, intergenerational transmission, delinquency
Author: Marshall Ineke Haen, Northeastern University
Chris E. Marshall, University of Nebraska at Omaha; Katharina Neissl, Northeastern University
Title: Low-Self Control and Opportunity Among a Cross-National Sample of 12–16-Year-Old Adolescents: What Difference Does Gender Make?
A number of studies have tested the general theory of crime as an explanation of gender differences in delinquency and victimization (e.g. LaGrange and Silverman 1999; Ward et al 2015; Koon-Magnin et al 2016). Key concepts in the general theory of crime are self-control and opportunity. The findings have been robust and generally supportive of the general theory of crime which posits that low self-control is related to delinquency, regardless of gender or culture. However, most of these tests have focused on Western, mostly Anglophone countries. Using 62, 360 questionnaires from 12-16 year olds in 27 countries collected as part of the International Self-Report Delinquency study (ISRD3), the paper will test the relationship between gender, low self-control, opportunity and self-reported delinquency across a variety of cultural contexts. Implications for criminological theory are discussed.
Keywords: ISRD, gender, general theory of crime, delinquency theory
Author: Killias Martin, University of St. Gallen
Anastasiia Lukash, University of St. Gallen
Title: Is Self-Control Universal or Culture Specific? Lessons From Isrd3 in Switzerland and Ex-Yugoslavia
In this paper, we compare self-control among more than 4,000 juveniles with and without foreign origin in Switzerland with some 6,000 juveniles of the same age in ex-Yugoslavia. The Swiss sample includes about 2,000 respondents of Swiss and an equal number of immigrant juveniles, of which some 400 from ex-Yugoslavia. It will be assessed whether self-control relates to migration and religion (Moslems, Christians, and juveniles without religions affiliation) and how it impacts delinquency.
We found that self-control varies across religious affiliations and cultures. Beyond this, it will be shown to what extent self-control and other commonly used independent variables affects delinquent behavior across countries and religions. In other words, are the causes of juvenile delinquency the same across cultures, or are Western models culture-specific that do not necessarily hold in different contexts.
Keywords: migration, ISRD, cross-national, self-control