Chair: Jörg-Martin Jehle
European Sourcebook Group Pre-arranged Panel: Preparing the new edition of the Sourcebook
Author: Vanneste Charlotte, National Institute of Criminalistics and Criminology (NICC) and University of Liege
Title: Data Collection About Ipv in the European Sourcebook of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics: a New Challenge in View of the Istanbul Convention
So far, the European Sourcebook of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics has not published any data specifically on Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). However, since the latest (fifth) edition covering the years 2007-2011, important international obligations and concrete initiatives that are occurring could change the situation in the future. Indeed, the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (Istanbul, 11 May 2011), in its Article 11, requires the collection of data to support implementation of this Convention. This obligation is based on the assumption that knowledge is essential to making effective policies and to evaluating implementation. The data to be collected is to take both administrative and survey forms. To date, this Convention has been signed by 45 states and ratified by 29. It entered into force in these latter states during the period of 2014-2018. Furthermore, Article 66 of the Istanbul Convention established a Group of experts (GREVIO) to monitor implementation of this Convention by the Parties. The objective of this presentation is to discuss the issues at stake with the concerned data collection, at both a theoretical and a practical level, and to clarify the challenge it constitutes for the European Sourcebook of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics. The debate will be informed by some examples of State practice in this area.
Keywords: Criminal Justice Statistics, Crime Statistics, Intimate Partner Violence, Criminal Policy
Author: Smit Paul, WODC, Ministry of Justice and Security
Title: Groping in the Dark – Exploring Methods to Measure Crime
The existence of a ‘dark figure’of crime (i.e. crimes committed but not observed in any way) is a known problem in criminology. In fact the introduction in some countries of victim surveys was seen as an answer to address the ‘dark figure’ issue at least partially. Since the beginning of the 21st century a decrease in crime is observed in many countries, both from police statistics and victim surveys. However, this decline could also be due to a replacement of ‘traditional’ types of crime by new forms of crime such as cybercrime. These could be underreported in victim surveys and police statistics. In other words: it could well be that the ‘dark figure’ of crime is actually increasing.
In the Netherlands a study was done to analyse the ‘dark figure’ issue and to make an inventory of possible datasources and alternative methods that could improve measuring crime and reduce this ‘dark figure’. Triangulation, Multiplier methods, Capture-recapture methods, social network methods and using big data and social media are discussed and examples are given. Besides, a theoretical framework together with a more fundamental discussion is presented on the topic of measuring the size of and the trends in crime.
Keywords: Dark figure of crime, crime statistics, triangulation, multiplier method, capture-recapture, social networks, big data, social media
Author: Harrendorf Stefan, University of Greifswald
Title: How the Performance of Criminal Justice Agencies Influences Crime and Criminal Justice Data in Europe
Earlier research has shown that variables measuring the quantitative performance of the police and prosecution service and the qualitative performance of the police have a significant influence on attrition processes in criminal justice systems across Europe. Relying on data not only from international crime and criminal justice surveys, but also from the European Social Survey and the Reports of CEPEJ, the paper will build on these results and identify and analyze other qualitative and quantitative performance measures for criminal justice agencies (e.g. police, prosecution, courts, prison administrations). The question how the different performance measures are related to each other and to crime and criminal justice variables (like the number of cases, suspects, convictions and the number of persons imprisoned) will be discussed. It is expected that the measures of qualitative performance are all strongly correlated with each other; the same is true for the measures of quantitative performance. Yet, there is not necessarily a strong correlation between the variables measuring the quality aspect of performance (issues like trust, satisfaction, legitimacy) and those which measure the quantity aspect (resources invested). The idea of dysfunctionally organized criminal justice systems is revisited and indicators for such a system are identified and discussed.
Keywords: Criminal Justice, attrition, performance measures
Author: Aebi Marcelo F., University of Lausanne
Hashimoto Yuji Z., Campistol Claudia
Title: Towards the 6Th Edition of the European Sourcebook of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics
This presentation summarizes the state of affairs regarding the elaboration of the sixth edition of the European Sourcebook of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics. The preparation for this data collection wave started in 2017, and an improved questionnaire has been developed. For this sixth edition, the European Sourcebook Group will be collaborating with the Council of Europe in the framework of the project LINCS (Linking International Criminal Statistics). The first meeting of the LINCS project, with the participation of national correspondents from all the member states of the Council of Europe, took place at the premises of the Council, in Strasbourg, in April 2018. The data collection should be completed by the end of 2018, and a second meeting, whose aim is to validate the data received, will take place in Spring 2019. Thus, the 6th edition of the European Sourcebook of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics, covering the years 2011 to 2018 should be available, in print and electronic versions, by the end of 2019. The presentation shows the changes introduce to the questionnaire on the basis of previous experiences and the feedback provided by the national correspondents. It summarizes the main challenges faced by a data collection of this sort and the ways in which they can be, at least partially, overcome. Finally, it illustrates the interactions and the complementarity of the European Sourcebook with the data collected by Eurostat and the UNODC.
Keywords: European Sourcebook, data collection, crime statistics