Chair: Rita Faria
EUROC & WG-QRME panel: The use of qualitative methods in researching organizational and white-collar crime
Author: King Colin, Sussex Law School, University of Sussex
Title: Exploring Estate Agents' Views of the Uk Anti-Money Laundering Regime in Practice
In May 2016, at the global Anti-Corruption Summit in London, PM David Cameron emphasised the need to “clean up our property market right here in London.” This statement reinforced other concerns that the London property market was a target for ‘dirty money’, and that estate agents were facilitating laundering of such money. Policy documents now emphasise the need to tackle ‘high end money laundering’, yet all too often there is an inadequate evidence base underpinning policy claims as to ‘high end money laundering’, ‘professional enablers’ or ‘facilitators’. In this paper, we explore how and why the property market is a target for money laundering; outline the legal rules put in place to stop such laundering, and consider the experiences of those at the coal face (ie estate agents) to gauge their views and experiences of anti-money laundering rules and obligations in the property sector.
Keywords: money laundering; qualitative methods
Author: Győry Csaba, ELTE University Faculty of Law/Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Legal Studies
Title: Buttoning up Revisited. Doing Ethnography on Wall Street (and Frankfurt)
In my paper I would like to describe, based on my own past research experience, the methodological challenges of doing qualitative research on the enforcement of financial regulation and the prosecution of financial crimes. By reflecting on methodological issues presented by contemporary ethnographic work of finance and financial regulation, the paper will concentrate on three distinct challenges qualitative criminological research has to face: the agency of the legal form and the complexity of financial markets, the role of non-human actors in the enforcement of financial crimes, and cognitive capture and the sterilising effect of legal language on the narratives of financial wrongdoing.
Keywords: financial regulation; ethnographic work
Author: Dodge Mary, University of Colorado Denver
Title: The Power and Pitfalls of Qualitative Data
Qualitative data often are gathered using in-depth interviews, which may employ structure or semi-structured protocols. The latter allows for stronger narratives and information that is wider in scope. Qualitative work developed from numerous disciplines and is often the backbone of white-collar crime research. Seminal case studies of corporate and professional crime have established the framework for grounded theory and further in-depth studies of elite criminals and victims. Qualitative work, however, can be difficult. The challenges of interviewing white-collar criminals and victims include, for example: gaining access, establishing rapport, and maintaining objectivity. Additionally, interviews may raise numerous unexpected ethical issues. The strengths of this method, however, outweigh the difficulties researchers often encounter. Despite initial trepidation that participants may be unwilling to talk about their crimes, most people embrace the opportunity to tell their story. Also, narratives from similar offenders offer a systematic analysis of themes that might be absent from quantitative data. Finally, the current trend to turn qualitative interviews into quantitative data narrows and diminishes results and findings. This work outlines the obstacles, strengths, and ethical issues associated with qualitative research in corporate and professional crime.
Keywords: corporate and professional crime; in-depth interviews
Author: Korsell Lars, The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Bra)
Frida Larsdotter Lundgren, The Swedish National Police; Maria Ellior, The Swedish National Police
Title: Swedish Market for Cultural Objects From War- and Conflict Zones. a Risk Analysis
Looting of archaeological artifacts is in some countries connected to as well as financing of terrorism and organized crime for the distribution of the objects to the market. The most obvious countries during the recent years are Syria and Iraq. The aim of the research project was to examine the existence on the Swedish art and antiquities market of archaeological artifacts looted from war zones with the purpose of financing a continued conflict. Unlike other studies in the field, the project uses the objects as a starting point. This will not only provide information concerning the market but also help form a full picture of the current market - its retailers and auction houses and the buyers, their fields of interest and also the price they are willing to pay.
The research methods are a study on internet, auction catalogues (also from 2007 and 1997) and antique- and coin fairs.
Keywords: art and antiquities market; organized crime; qualitative methods