Chair: Rutger Leukfeldt

Cybercrime: online crime markets

Building: B
Room: 31

Author: Aniello Sara, University of Lausanne

Title: Trust and Mechanisms of Trust in Online Stolen Goods Markets
Online stolen goods markets are the outcome of the commission of two offenses: the theft and the online sale of stolen goods. This can necessitate division of labour and cooperation between co-offenders but risks inherent to illegality and difficulties to find co-offenders represent constraints. Therefore, trust has a central role in criminal associations to solve issues related to uncertainty and risks. Based upon analogies, this article proposes a theoretical model of trust in online stolen goods markets. It outlines the phases of trust between co-offenders, i.e., recruitment, building, maintenance and distrust. It is built taking characteristics of these markets into account but it can applied to other illicit markets implicating criminal associations. More research is needed to test empirically the model.
Keywords: Cybercrime, dark web, online market, trust
Author: Madarie Renushka, Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR)

Stijn Ruiter, Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR) Wouter Steenbeek, Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR) Edward Kleemans, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Title: Stolen Online Credentials: a Hijacker’S Decision-Making Perspective
Stolen online account credentials are disseminated online in various places. Acquiring these credentials enables account hijacking. The aim of this research is to analyse the choice alternatives faced by potential account hijackers when seeking to obtain stolen credentials. The focus lies on two phases in this process, namely choosing platforms where stolen credentials are disseminated and choosing posts in which stolen credentials are offered. Three types of platforms frequently used for this purpose are internet forums, marketplaces, and paste websites. Attributes of these platforms are outlined first. Platforms on both the openweb and the deepweb are taken into consideration here. Subsequently, posts on each of these three types of platforms are scrutinised. To this end, available webscrapes and our own webscrapes are used. Differences in posts appearing between types of platforms and between types of accounts are statistically tested. Results are discussed.
Keywords: cybercrime, darb web, online market
Author: Cunliffe Jack, University of Kent

James Martin, Swinburne University
Title: What Can Cryptomarket Research Tell Us About the About Illicit Trade: Implications Beyond the Digital?
This paper will draw together research findings about cryptomarkets from an ongoing collaboration between researchers from Manchester, Montreal, Swinburne and Kent universities based on what has come be known as the ‘digital trace’ method. Using empirical findings that have focused on the specifics of the Australian online illicit drug market, the US opioid crisis, psychiatric drugs sales and the geographical spread of online trade, as well as the wider and burgeoning cryptomarket literature, it will identify similarities and differences between the research approaches and the findings that have come from them. It will then pose the question as to what this type of analysis can tell us about the structure of the wider illicit drug trade, what are the barriers and opportunities of using digital trace methodologies, and research on cryptomarkets more generally, for discovering these implications? By attempting to marry established criminological theory with novel analytical techniques and data sources, the paper will start to develop a framework from which deeper insights into both cybercrime and more traditionally recognised crime, and their interplay, can be uncovered.
Keywords: cybercrime, darb web, crypte market
Author: DeMarco Jeffrey, Middlesex University

Elena Martellozzo, Middlesex University
Title: Exploring the Processes of Removing Child Sexual Abuse Material Online. the Case Study of the Internet Watch Foundation.
As child sexual abuse material saturate the internet, new and original partnerships have developed in combatting these crimes. As promising as many of these joined up strategies can be, there is a need for appropriate measurement, monitoring and targeting of resources to ensure that society effectively deals with illegal child content. The aim of this paper is to present recent research funded by the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF), an organisation who acts as a champion both nationally, in the United Kingdom, and internationally in the removal of online indecent images of children and in raising industry awareness about the issue. Through the use of mixed methodological approaches, using qualitative interviews and focus groups and survey data, data have been collected to explore the IWF’s effectiveness. Specifically, the paper explores the links between the IWFs primary provisions, including Notice and Takedown (NTD) requests; the management and evolution of a URL black list; and IWFs effectiveness in and the provision of support to multi-stakeholders in securing and implementing a safe cyberspace.
Keywords: child sexual abuse, child pornography, Notice and Takedown, governance
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