Chair: Emilia Jurgielewicz-Delegacz
Current and future researches of the Olsztyn School of Ecocriminology
Author: Pływaczewski Wiesław, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
Joanna Narodowska, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Maciej Duda, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
Title: Criminal Climatology - Beginnings, Achievements, Perspectives
The lecture concerns a new branch of interest in the field of green criminology that is called criminal climatology or criminology of climate change. The authors explain the key terms as well as present the beginnings of scientific interest in climate as a criminal category. In their opinion, the most important threats, from the climate perspective, are the phenomenon of global warming and its repercussions (also in criminal dimension). Among threats they indicate climate wars (for water, land and natural resources). The consequences of mentioned phenomena are, inter alia, climatic and ecological migration that generates various types of criminal activities which often take forms of organized crime. The aim of the paper is to redefine crimes against natural environment, including social and criminal problems that are strictly connected with climate change. Another purpose of the presentation is to determine the scope of responsibility of global corporations of various industries for negative effects of climate change. The considerations are based on the achievements and surveys of eco-criminology, in particular green criminology. The examples quoted by authors include international, domestic (Polish) and local cases of so-called ecological crimes.
Keywords: criminal climatology, climate refugees, climate wars, climate change
Author: Duda Maciej, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
Wiesław Pływaczewski, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Joanna Narodowska, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
Title: Cites Crimes in Poland – Causes, Phenomenon, Counteracting
CITES crimes are part of crimes against natural heritage. This brief name is based on the act of international law dealing with the issue of cross-border crimes against environment – Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (Washington, 1973). At first sight, it seems that these crimes are less-important and less-socially harmful than, for example, THB, drug smuggling or illegal arms trade but smuggling of CITES species is a serious crime and real threat to the global security because it may create funds for other criminal activities. Poland is considered to be a transit or less often destination country. At the Polish border the most commonly found smuggled items include: black caviar, medical leeches, eels, parrots, turtles, snakes, corals, ivory and traditional Asian medicine. Every year in Poland, there are approximately 100-250 disclosures of smuggling of CITES species. Criminologists observed that in the field of smuggling of natural heritage, the so-called dark number of crimes is estimated at around 90%. Detection of these crimes is also quite low because they remain outside the main areas of interest of law enforcement authorities. Such crimes are sometimes wrongly classified as the so-called crimes without victims. On the other hand, they often have the characteristics of organized crime. The perpetrators can originate from both the blue-collar crimes (common crimes) and the so-called white-collar crimes (economic crimes).
Keywords: CITES, natural heritage, cross-boarder crimes, environmental crimes
Author: Narodowska Joanna, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
Wiesław Pływaczewski, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Maciej Duda, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
Title: The Correlation Between Aggression Towards Animals and Aggression Towards People in the Light of Records Research
In English-language literature, it is indicated, that the perpetrators of abuse (perpetrators of domestic violence) very often use violence against animals. At the same time, there is no Polish research confirming or falsifying the hypothesis of the existence of such a correlation. Therefore, the main aim of this work was an attempt to define, on the basis of the results of the author's research, is there any relationship between the phenomenon of aggression towards animals and propensity to be aggressive towards people. The research method, which is applied in the work, consists in researching documents. The subject of analysis is the content of the court records in criminal cases concerning the Article 35 of the Act on the Protection of Animals. The research included criminal proceedings instituted against persons accused of a prohibited act in the form of animal killing or violence against animals. The research was conducted in the District Court in Olsztyn, Poland. The authors researched all criminal cases finished with final judgment. On the basis of the established criteria, there were selected criminal cases in which there may occur the relationship between the use of violence by perpetrators towards animals and people. The personal and cognitive data of the selected perpetrators as well as psychiatric opinion allowed to present the characteristics of the studied population and identify factors that could play an important role in the genesis of acts of aggression.
Keywords: aggression, violence against people, violence against animals, perpetrator of violance
Author: Mroczko Piotr, University of Białystok
Title: Football Fans Delinquency – the Research Done by the Białystok School of Criminology
Football fans delinquency is a very old problem. This pathology arose in the Ancient Rome and Greece. It started in the nineteenth century when football fans invasions on the sports ground occurred. In Poland football hooliganism developed in the second half of twentieth century. Currently in Poland the perpetrators of crimes connected with football matches are most of all men under 25 years old. An example of crime committed at football stadium is abuse, violent disorder or public officers bodily inviolability violation. A significant fact concerning football hooligans is their hostility towards the Police. Police officers are treated as the principal enemy, even bigger than the fan of the opposite team. Obviously governmental authorities in Poland make an effort to fight with football fans delinquency. On the one hand there is a Penal Code which regulates crimes for example abuse in the article 216. Furthermore the Penal Code institutes in the article 41b the ban on mass events entrance. On the other hand there are other legal regulations such as the ban on mass event execution from the Act on Social Events Safety. Football fans delinquency is a very interesting pathology for criminologists. It seems not to be the most serious issue. However many people in Poland an all over the world attended football matches including families with children.
Keywords: football fans, football hooliganism, violence at stadium