Chair: Jon Davies
Critical interventions for labour exploitation and human trafficking
Author: Fuentes Cano Ana Maria, University of Southampton
Title: The Rescue of Victims of Human Trafficking in England
The paper examines the phenomenon of human trafficking in England, drawing on data collected from interviews with practitioners (both law-enforcement officers and non-governmental agencies) that are engaged in activities of identification and/or assistance for victims of trafficking.
Although the UK government has made strenuous efforts in recent years to curb the flow of human trafficking as well as to better, identify and support victims, it has tended to see the issue primarily as one of migration and criminal offending. This paper discusses how the present UK anti-trafficking system of identification (UK National Referral Mechanism) promotes disparities in the way victims of trafficking are assessed and assisted based on their migratory status. The study highlights how this difference in treatment between potential victims of trafficking based on their nationality can impact on their recovery (with access to support and its adequacy significantly vary). The paper ultimately concludes that the present approach to identify and assist victims of trafficking, underpinned as it is by concerns with immigration control, should be reformed towards a more victim-based approach in order to assure fairness and human rights’ protection.
Author: Davies Jon, University of Manchester
Title: The Governance of Labour Exploitation in Food Supply Networks
When addressing labour exploitation and ‘modern slavery’, common approaches consist of interventions by the police and criminal justice system. However, due to strict criminal-legal definitions and high evidence thresholds, these interventions are only possible when targeting the most severe, criminalised exploitation, including human trafficking and forced labour. This emphasis means that a large amount of exploitation that is neither reported nor ‘severe’ enough to warrant criminal law intervention risks being overlooked or dismissed as trivial. The purpose of this paper is to consider that a broader range of regulatory or ‘governance’ options, including state regulation, self-regulation of businesses, and trade union activity, is more appropriate in addressing the full spectrum of labour exploitation. Evidence from workers and supply chain stakeholders in UK food production, including supply chain businesses, labour providers, regulators and trade union representatives, is used to inform this discussion. The governance of labour exploitation in relation to business activities has broader implications for the disciplinary areas of regulation and criminology, whereby the former tends to prioritise restorative and persuasive approaches, whereas the latter focuses on deterrence and coercion. Ultimately a ‘one-size fits all’ approach of criminal law intervention is limited when addressing issues as complex as labour exploitation, whether in local or global supply chains.
Author: Markovska Anna, Anglia Ruskin University
Rose Broad, University of Manchester
Alexey Serdyuk, Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs
Title: Understanding Labour Exploitation in Different Cultural Settings: the Experience of Ukraine, Lithuania and the Uk
This presentation draws on the on-going project studying practicalities of policing modern day slavery. We aim to critically address the meaning of labour exploitation in Ukraine and Lithuania, and the context of policing labour exploitation in the UK. Labour exploitation usually understood as a problem of migrant workers in host countries, the exploitation that occurs in the country of origin is often ignored. We discuss some of the contributing factors of labour exploitation in ex-Soviet countries, and reflect of practicalities of policing labour exploitation in the UK.