Chair: Professor James Treadwell

Criminal Markets in a Changing World

Building: A
Room: 13

Author: Treadwell James, Staffordshire University

Title: Mafia Maffick, Metamorphosis and Moving Markets – Looking at England’S Mediatized Criminal Milieus.
To maffick is to celebrate publicly with boisterous rejoicing and hilarious and extravagant behaviour. It is unarguable that some criminal actors are publicly celebrating much of the mutation of organised crime, and that factual mediatized representations they create in doing this might tell us much of the contemporary character of criminal markets on the move. The cultural and cross-cultural context within which the transnational variant operates lead to it frequently being described as ‘complex’, which in many ways it is. Yet it also is simple, it is about economics, markets and political-economy. Organised crime is ultimately transactional before it is transnational and looking at mediatized representations allow for new insights into new organised networks, new illicit markets and how new criminal praxis is emerging and evolving. It also facilitates insight into how socio-economic and technological changes impact upon the macro level community practices on specific locales and milieus. This paper takes as the focus of its discussion of organised crime in England and looks broadly at real world mediatized representations that highlight both changes and continuities in the crime in England and hence aims to document both nationally and internationally some of the ways that criminal markets are on the move.
Keywords: Organised Crime, Criminal Markets,
Author: Large Joanna, Centre for the Study of Poverty & Social Justice School for Policy Studies University of Bristol

Title: Illicit Markets: Counterfeiting, Crime, Harm and Consumption
This paper examines counterfeiting as a growing and diversifying illicit market. Drawing upon empirical qualitative research which examines the consumption (demand) and supply of counterfeit goods, this paper explores critically the nature of contemporary counterfeit markets. In addition to mapping out the current research and knowledge base regarding the counterfeit market; a market which is of increasing concern to law and regulatory agencies, this paper will further examine the challenges of understanding complex, and at times contradictory, illicit markets and conclude with identifying directions for future research.
Keywords: illicit markets, counterfeiting, demand and supply, organised crime
Author: Ayres Tammy, Department of criminology, University of Leicester

James Treadwell, Staffordshire University
Title: Drug Dealing as (Criminal) Entrepreneurship: Moving With the Market
This paper examines drug dealing as a form of entrepreneurship. Against much of the dominant representation of media created mythology of sophisticated organised crime connected to such supply, we identify that some enterprising young men (some with well cultivated reputations for violence) can carve out a niche for themselves against otherwise receding legitimate opportunities, but degrees of criminality are stratified and in ways not always obvious or apparent. Drawing on ethnographic data to make the case that illicit drug dealing must be seen against a back drop of traditional entrepreneurialism, pervasive consumerism and compulsive acquisition, that some people all too ready and willing to both exploit and avail themselves of. It also argues that that drugs sales are often a supplementary income (top up) to low earnings in the legitimate economy, no longer confined to the 'usual suspects' (I.e. those over-represented in police figures, in the media, or indeed criminology) but for a much broader group for whom shortfalls in legitimate income are strategically countered via engagement in the illegal drug economy, and this is brought about increasingly by technological and attitudinal shifts.
Keywords: Markets, Crime, illicit markets, Drugs, Enterprise
Author: Hall Alexandra , Northumbria University

Title: Drugs and Luxury Late Bars: Cocaine and the Shifting Cultural Economy of a Post-Industrial City
This paper will present findings from ongoing ethnographic research with cocaine user-sellers in Newcastle upon Tyne, North East England. The North East has been hit hard by austerity yet the cocaine market is booming in Newcastle. It is the new drug of choice on the city’s thriving night-time scene where suppliers have taken advantage of a shift that is seeing the old school nightclubs die out, making way instead for a string of luxury late bars across the city. It is here that a new breed of entrepreneur can be found living the high life on three-day benders, fuelled by large amounts of cash and increasingly pure cocaine. This paper will discuss how the local culture and economy of cocaine use and supply has shifted to the point the drug has now become a major accessory in the search for success, status and luxury in the post-industrial city.
Keywords: Ethnography, Cocaine, Cultural Economy, Post Industrialism
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