Chair: Jarrett Blaustein
Crime, Justice and Sustainable Development
Author: Blaustein Jarrett, Monash University
Title: Unravelling the Crime-Development Nexus: From Social Defence to Sustainable Development
This paper presents a genealogical account of the crime-development nexus using documentary analysis and interviews with current and former senior managers from the United Nations Office for Drugs and Crime (UNODC). It traces the origins of the nexus back to the United Nation’s (UN) formative interest in the criminogenic consequences of rapid modernization and then consider how its framing of the relationship between crime and development evolved in response to the internationalization of its crime policy agenda and the onset of neoliberal globalization. The article then provides a more detailed account of UNODC’s efforts to promote the idea that crime poses a threat to sustainable development following the adoption of the Millennium Development Goals. The analysis illuminates the complex origins of this simple yet powerful idea and how it has been shaped by the politics of the UN system and the international community.
Keywords: global crime governance; sustainable development; southern criminology; UNODC
Author: Barberet Rosemary, John Jay College of Criminal Justice
Title: Inclusive and Safe Cities for the Future: A Criminological Analysis
Cities have long been of interest to international development as well as to criminology. Historically, criminology as a social science emerged as a response to the new opportunities created by urbanization for criminal activity and victimization. Thus SDG 11, which “aims to “make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable”, is ripe for criminological input and analysis. SDG11 tackles housing and basic services, transport systems, urban planning, cultural and natural heritage, disaster prevention, environmental impact, and safe, inclusive, and accessible green and public spaces. There has been ample criminological research on crime and victimization in various types of human settlements, on transport systems, on the looting and trafficking of cultural heritage, on crimes associated with natural disasters and on the importance of public leisure areas for crime prevention. Yet many of the above goals, as well as the recommendations emerging from these bodies of research, conflict with each other, and must be problematized in their aim to be inclusive of all. This paper will analyze SGD11 against the evidence base of urban criminology as well as the challenges for inclusion, given diversity both within-country as well as globally.
Keywords: safe cities; sustainable development; inclusion; urban crime
Author: Campbell Liz, Monash University
Nicholas Lord, University of Manchester
Title: Following the money: illicit financial flows and sustainable development
Sustainable development and the enhancing of justice and security throughout the Global South are predicated on the existence of sufficient and appropriately deployed assets. This paper examines the nexus between sustainable development and illicit financial flows (IFF), and critiques how this aim of SDG16.4 which 'seeks to “...significantly reduce illicit financial … flows" has been operationalised. We argue that the choice and placement of the term “illicit” is crucial: it can relate to the finances, the flows, or both, as well as to the people involved, as facilitators or protagonists, and is expansive enough to encompass criminal, unlawful, and ostensibly legal but illegitimate or harmful assets, acts, and actors. This paper explores why the movement of assets is significant, within and between jurisdictions, and how this impacts on sustainable development and can worsen inequalities. Our attention is on two types of IFF in particular: 1. the movement of the proceeds of crime, given that illegal markets can compromise the economy as well as entailing other harms such as to public health, and 2. multinational tax avoidance (MTA), which relocates profits overseas.
Keywords: illicit financial flows; sustainable development; corruption; tax avoidance
Author: Vegh Weis Valeria, Buenos Aires University
Title: A Marxist Framework for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
This paper examines the contributions of Marx and Engels as a framework for analysing the historical evolution of ‘criminal selectivity’ in capitalist societies. It accounts for how a specific modality of criminal selectivity, legally-disciplining criminal selectivity, emerged at the end of the 18th century in a historical context dominated by bourgeois revolutions. The new ruling class relied on a legal-philosophical discourse to promote a drastic legal transformation: the equal treatment for all citizens under law. This marked the beginning of a period of ‘idyllic justice’ grounded in consensual social values that gave the appearance, at least formally, of non-selectivity. This change consolidated a rupture with the legislation of the primitive accumulation, which had established different regulations according to socio-economic status. Despite these promises, the emergent formal treatment under the law contrasted with the inequality in the enforcement of the law. The continuity of the impoverished sectors’ dispossession – an inherent element of the development of capitalism – was then hidden behind three modes of inequality: the denial of unequal material conditions through the imposition of an ahistorical and abstract characterization of the law; inequality of the formal law; and inequality in the application of the law. Today, in an age of global governance, this paper proposes that a similar process of globalized legal-discipline is taking place through the SDGs.
Keywords: Marxism; sustainable development; critical criminology; global governance