Chair: Stephen Farrall
Crime and Inequality: Emerging Evidence from Studies in Northern Europe
Author: McAra Lesley, University of Edinburgh
Susan McVie, University of Edinburgh
Title: How Do Early Inequalities Impact on Criminal Trajectories Over the Life Course?
This paper will set out new findings from the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime on the ways in which inequalities in early adolescence shape the conviction trajectories of young people who come into conflict with the law. It is presented as part of a panel entitled ‘Crime and Inequality: Emerging Evidence from Studies in Northern Europe’. Utilising data from 20 years of fieldwork, the paper will show how inequalities associated with adverse childhood experiences, as well as structural factors such as neighbourhood deprivation, impact on young people’s criminal justice pathways. In turn, these pathways create path dependencies which are exacerbated by the cumulative impact of poverty and agency contact over the life course. The paper will explore the implications of this for criminological theory and institutional policy and practice.
Keywords: inequalities; life-course; offending
Author: Farrall Stephen, University of Sheffield
Emily Gray, University of Sheffield
Title: What Happened to ‘Thatcher’S Children’?: the Housing, Victimisation and Criminogenic Experiences of Two Uk Cohorts
During the 1980s and in the years since, there has been much talk of ‘Thatcher’s Children’ – those people who grew up or came of age during the period in office of Margaret Thatcher’s (1979-1990) and John Major’s (1990-1997) conservative governments. Using two of the UK’s birth cohort studies (people born in 1958 and in 1970 who have been repeated re-interviewed), this paper explores the impact of the sale of state-owned housing on the experiences of homelessness, victimisation and contact with the criminal justice system for these people. We find that outcomes relating to homelessness in adult life, victimisation and contact with the criminal justice system are shaped by whether or not their parents had bought their house from the state when these were sold off in the early 1980s. As such the paper shows how intergenerational transmission processes work in practice and how policy interventions in one sphere (housing) at one point in time (the 1980s) may have impact much later in other aspects of social life (engagement in crime up to the year 2000).
Keywords: politics and crime; life courses; offending
Author: Backman Olof, University of Stockholm
Felipe Estrada, Anders Nilsson both University of Stockhom
Title: The Usual Suspects? Sociodemographic Trends of Criminal Convictions in Sweden Over Five Decades
In the paper we present results from a new research project entitled The inequality of crime. We claim that both empirical research and the theoretical understanding of crime trends could be made more complete by unfolding how the social gradient of crime and victimization is linked to the development in other areas of material well-being. The aim of the present paper is to unfold how the trends of the distribution of convictions in the population has developed across recent decades with respect to socio-economic circumstances, ethnicity and neighbourhood composition. Has the inequality of convictions risk been stable, amplified or has it converged? The analyses are based on administrative register data covering all criminal convictions in Sweden 1973-2015.
Keywords: inequality; neighbourhoods; conviction