Chair: Brian Francis
Crime Trends and risk factors: violent and non-violent victimisation
Author: Lautisten Janet, University of Missouri-St. Louis
Karen Heimer, University of Iowa
Title: The Gender Gap in Violent Victimization in the United States, 1973-2016
In previous research based on data from 1973 to 2004, we reported a narrowing of the gender gap in violent victimization (Lauritsen and Heimer, 2008). In this paper we revisit this issue using data from 12 subsequent years of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and find that the narrowing of the gender gap in violence continued over time, and that female rates of serious violent victimization now exceed male rates. We further examine the extent to which the closing of the gender gap might reflect methodological changes associated with the NCVS and differences in the trends by victim-offender relationship. The importance of understanding the nature of the changes in the gender gap is discussed.
Keywords: Crime trends, gender-based violence, victimisation surveys
Author: Clark Chantelle, Lancaster University
Title: The Changing Incidence and Prevalence of Cyberbullying: Evidence From the Us National Crime Victimisation Survey School Crime Supplement
With the development of technology, a new way of bullying individuals has emerged. No longer are children just bullied in the playground, instead this playground bullying has expanded into online activity. With the rate of technological development continuing to increase, there are concerns within society as to what the true extent of cyber-bullying is and what can be done to protect victims from harm. To understand the true extent of cyber-bullying both prevalence and incidence (victimisations) need to be considered. The US National Crime Victimization Survey School Crime Supplement(NCVS-SCS) was selected as the most appropriate data source as it allows changes over time in both incidence and prevalence to be assessed and to be disaggregated according to age, cohort and gender. In order to protect victims from harm, it is also crucial to identify risk factors at the individual level that make a child more likely to become a victim of cyberbullying; and initial steps towards this goal will be presented.
Keywords: cyber-bullying, crime trends
Author: Rosenfeld Richard, University of Missouri - St. Louis
Matt Vogel, University of Missouri-St Louis, USA and Timothy McCudden University of Missouri-St. Louise
Title: Crime and Inflation in U. S. Cities
The current study replicates prior national-level research on the relationship between crimes committed for monetary gain and inflation in a sample of 17 U. S. cities between 1960 and 2013. A random coefficients model is used to estimate the effects of inflation on the change in acquisitive crime over time, controlling for other influences. The estimates yield significant effects of inflation on acquisitive crime rates in the 17 cities. City-specific coefficients also reveal nontrivial variation across the cities in the significance, size, and impact of inflation on acquisitive crime. Continued low inflation rates should restrain future crime increases in many US cities. Monetary policy should be evaluated with respect to its effect on crime.
Keywords: Crime trends, acquisitive crime; risk factors
Author: Francis Brian, Lancaster University
Jonnie Bevan, Lancaster University
Title: Non-Intimate Family Violence in England and Wales: Trends and Risk Factors.
The focus of nearly all work on domestic violence is on intimate partner violence. However many definitions of domestic violence also include non-intimate family violence; where adult respondents are violently victimised by other members of the family (such as brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, children and parents). Using five years of data taken from the Crime Survey of England and Wales, we explore this neglected topic, examining gender-based trends in prevalence and incidence; and comparing prevalence risk factors between the two types of domestic violence. We conclude that non-intimate family violence is extensive, and appears to have a different aetiology, and suggest that crime surveys needs to more fully explore this form of domestic violence.
Keywords: Family violence, domestic violence, crime trends