Chair: Jo Deakin

Case Studies on Organised and Organising Crime: Money laundering, food fraud and modern slavery

Building: A
Room: 13

Author: Spencer Jon, University of Manchester

Nicholas Lord, University of Manchester; Jon Davies, University of Manchester
Title: Assessing Food Fraud Vulnerabilities in Supply Chains
The issue of food fraud is increasingly gaining attention from criminology and other disciplines. Part of this attention involves moving analysis from a number of ‘external’ rogue actors who identify criminal opportunities in markets, towards understanding how ‘internal’ legitimate supply chain actors play an important role in facilitating fraud. Given the range of markets where food fraud occurs, our current research involves conducting ‘vulnerability assessments’ for specific industries, thereby tailoring interventions that are appropriate to sectors, countries, and their political-economic context. Drawing on empirical research involving script analysis and an adaptation of routine activities theory, the purpose of this paper is to argue that legitimate supply chain dynamics present challenges to the food industry. Protective factors are also identified that provides a level of protection for farmers and consumers, thereby minimising the opportunities for fraud. A series of vulnerability points have been identified where embedded fraudulent practice are possible and where such practices may become normalised in day to day transactions.
Keywords: Food fraud
Author: Benson Katie, Lancaster University

Title: Researching the Facilitation of Money Laundering: Where From and Where to Now?
This paper tracks the evolution of my ongoing research into the facilitation of money laundering by legitimate professionals (e.g. lawyers, accountants), which began in 2012 with the commencement of doctoral research, supervised by Jon Spencer, and continues with a recently completed monograph on Lawyers and the Management of Criminal Proceeds. The origins of this research lay in the discourse about the role of ‘professional enablers’ - the name given to legitimate actors in a range of occupational fields who ‘enable’ the activities of organised crime groups in various ways, including by facilitating the laundering of their criminal proceeds – which began to emerge in organised crime policing and policy in the UK about a decade ago. Since then, the role of professionals in the facilitation of money laundering has become increasingly prominent on policy agendas, at both the nation state and international level. This paper will discuss the current position of research and scholarship in this area; outline a framework for the analysis of legitimate actors’ involvement in money laundering that has been developed over the course of my research; highlight the remaining analytical, theoretical and conceptual gaps; and suggest future research directions.
Keywords: Money laundering
Author: Broad Rose, University of Manchester

David Gadd, University of Manchester
Title: Reconceptualising the ‘Shambolic’ in Sham Marriage: Modern Slavery Perpetrators Accounts.
In this paper we present emerging findings from a new ESRC funded (R121950) project on ‘The Perpetrators of Modern Slavery Offences: Motivations, Networks and Backgrounds’. We focus specifically on the accounts of two offenders serving substantial prison sentences for their involvement in the organisation of sham marriages, presenting in-depth biographical accounts of their lives leading up to their convictions for modern slavery offences committed in the UK. Our analysis questions the degree to which such offenders are implicated in forcing victims into such marriages and argues for both biographical and cultural contextualisation in cases where the agent most deceived is the state.
Keywords: Modern slavery
Author: Markina Anna, University of Tartu

Jüri Saar, University of Tartu
Title: Organised Crime, Corruption and the Movement of People Across Borders in the Baltics: What Has Changed in Since 2004?
In 2006, a three country project (UK, Finland, Estonia) investigated the issues of corruption by organised crime in relation to border controls and immigration using as a case study the Finnish - Russian and the Estonian - Russian border. The project looked at the methods of illegal facilitation of people across borders, the role of crime groups and networks as well as organised crime and the relationship between illegal facilitation and exploitation in the labour market. Today, after more than a decade, we will look at how the situation in relation to human trafficking has changed in Estonia and to what extent the findings of the original research are valid in 2018.
Keywords: Organised crime, corruption, Baltics, networks, borders
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