Chair: Gorazd Meško
BC Victimology panel
Author: Meško Gorazd, Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security, University of Maribor
Title: On Victims and Victimology – a New Book of the Balkan Criminology Network (Work in Progress)
This presentation consists of an overview of activities of the Max Planck Partner Group for 'Balkan Criminology' to publish an edited book on victims and victimology in English. At a conference of the BC network in Budapest (2017), the 'Balkan Criminology' network initiated a new project - a book on victims and victimology. An idea to edit a book on victims of crime and the development of victimology is a significant contribution to comparative criminology and victimology to present national reports on victimological issues in the BC member countries. The papers consist of authors' reflection on the beginnings, development and the state of the art of victimology, victimological research and changes in (criminal) legislation regarding the status of victims and victim protection. In addition to other publications, victimological perspectives add significant value to other comparative activities of the Group.
Keywords: Balkan Criminology, Victimology, Victims
Author: Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna, University of Belgrade
Sanja Ćopić, Victimology Society of Serbia, Institute of Criminological and Sociological Research
Title: Development of Victimology and the Victims’ Rights Movement in Serbia
The situation of victims in Serbia has received increasing attention during recent decades, both by researchers and by society at large. First systematized scientific papers and empirical research in the field of victimology, as well as first initiatives for improvement of the position of victims in Serbia occurred in 1980s, with feminists having an important role in both. During 1990s the influence of other factors was added: initiatives of human rights organisations, development of victimology as an academic discipline, increase of crime, ethnic conflicts on the territory of the former Yugoslavia and related humanitarian initiatives. Advocacy of civil society contributed to a great extent to the changes of the state’s relationship toward victims’ issues that occurred only after political changes in 2000. Since 2012, in the context of the EU accession process and harmonization of Serbian legislation and policy with the EU aquis, more favourable climate for wider social acceptance of a holistic approach to the rights of all victims and their support and assistance has been created. This paper will present an overview and analysis of development of victimology and the victims’ rights movement in Serbia, as well as to evaluate it bearing in mind larger context of development as well as current status of victimology and advocacy for victims’ rights. Victimology and the victims’ rights movement in Serbia will be presented following the development through four periods.
Keywords: Balkan Criminology, Victimology, Victims, Serbia
Author: Getos Kalac Anna-Maria, Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb
Suncana Roksandic Vidlicka, Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb; Zoran Buric, Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb
Title: Victimology and Victim Protection in Croatia
The authors will present first findings of their survey on victimology and victim protection in Croatia, as part of the Balkan Criminology overall victimological mapping of Southeast Europe. The presentation combines empirical and normative approaches while assessing the current state of art in Croatian victimology and victim protection. Victimology in Croatia, just as criminology, has a long history but rather poor tradition in terms of substantial scientific or even normative content. Victimological studies are rare, even if “study” is very broadly and flexibly defined, whereas victimization surveys do not exist at all. Therefore, it should come as no surprise that it has only been rather recently that the term “victim” (žrtva) has been normatively coined in the Croatian Penal Code and the Criminal Procedure Act, whereby Croatia did transpose the EU Victim Directive. However, restorative justice concepts are not well developed in Croatia, although there are two procedures foreseen that might be regarded as restorative justice schemes. Regarding public and media discourse on victims and victimisation in Croatia, in the last couple of years the discourse has been strongly focused on victims of domestic violence, especially women.
Keywords: Balkan Criminology, Victimology, Victims, Croatia
Author: Sárik Eszter, National Institute of Criminology
Title: Victimology in Hungary
In my presentation, I would like to examine the basic theoretical problems ofvictimology in Hungary. According to TihamérTóth, there are 8 relevant fields based on which victimology can be interpreted as a whole. It is inevitable a.) to identify the position of the victim within the criminal procedure and to examine his/her legal protection provided by the law; b.) to examinethe sociological, psychological and biological character of the victim; c.) to examine the extension and the quality of the dark numbers of criminality and the causes which lead to low policereporting levels; d.) to interpret the relationship between the offender and the victim; e.) to highlight the nature of the victims’ behavior during the criminal act;f.) to examine the behavior of the injured party within the context of law enforcement; g.)to estimate the amount of damage the victim had to suffer as a result of the criminal act interms of health,physical integrity and properties; h.) to calculate the potential risks of being victimized based on the social and living conditions of people.
The above-listed research fields differ not just in methodological termsbut also strongly influence the approach to the victim both in science and in everyday discussions. By highlighting the aforementioned issues, I would like to draw attention to those problems which formulated the contradictory position of the victim, partly caused by science itself.
Keywords: Balkan Criminology, Victimology, Victims, Hungary