Crime, science and politics (WG) – Panel I
Chair: Ahmed Ajil
Title: Investigating the Role of Collective Grievance in Young Men'S Engagement in Politically Motivated Violence
Various forms of politically motivated violence (PMV) are a growing source of preoccupation in today’s societies. Whether it is joining an armed rebel faction or a guerrilla like movement, engaging in armed resistance, staging an armed attack on a civilian target – young men from very different backgrounds and contexts all over the world have resorted to PMV. The focus of the recent trends in this form of violence have been the conflicts in the Arab world, namely in Syria, Iraq and Palestine, that are not only a physical source of attraction for young men, but also an emotional source of inspiration to mobilise for combat, whether locally or elsewhere. The objective of this research is to gain a greater understanding of why young men become so frustrated and angry that resorting to violent means becomes a justifiable line of action. What role do the three major conflicts in the Arab world in recent years play therein? How does their resentment or grievance eventually translate into action? Is the attitude that gradually justifies resorting to violent action based on pro-social or anti-social sentiments? These questions will be investigated through in-depth interviews with young men from three different contexts: Central Europe, the Arab Mashreq and North America and documentary analysis of online and offline data. The respondent population will consist of three groups: a) young men that are engaged, b) have disengaged from and c) have never engaged in acts of PMV.
Keywords: collective, strain, political, grievance, PMV, politically, motivated, violence, terrorism, radicalisation, radicalization, foreign, fighters, extremism
, Chris Fox
, Chris O'Leary
Title: Payment by Results and Pay for Success: What'S the Difference?
Governments in some of the world’s richest nations appear to be caught in a double challenge of increasing social needs and declining social budgets. In this context outcomes-based commissioning has been suggested as one way in which “more” social security can be provided for “less” resource.
In this paper, we examine the theoretical justification of two forms of outcomes based commissioning: Payment by Results, PbR, and Pay for Success, PFS. We also present the results of a recent global census of Payment by Results and Pay for Success schemes. Although PbR and PFS appear at first sight to be similar policy interventions, we argue, and demonstrate, that the motivational philosophy differs between nations. Taking the nations where these schemes have most widely been employed, the UK and the USA as examples, we contrast the extent to which innovations are state – or privately – initiated.
In general, the UK approach to PbR has a greater emphasis on public sector tendering or subcontracting for particular social provision, often supposedly to improve efficiency. This approach is often characterised as marketisation. By contrast, in the USA, the PFS motivation is more likely to arise, not from the state, but from philanthropists initiating social provision and seeking public funds to continue or to expand such interventions.
This is an important distinction as it limits the inferences we may draw on one nation’s experience on the basis of that of the other.
Keywords: PbR, Payment by Results, PfS, Pay for Success, Marketisation
Title: Forensic Dna: An Analysis of the Use in a Criminal Investigation
DNA traces are often gathered at the crime scene during a criminal investigation. However only a small percentages of the collected traces is analysed and therefore used during this investigation. In this study we aim to map the decision-making process concerning DNA-traces and to study how useful DNA can be for a criminal investigation.
We studied robbery cases, manslaughter and murder cases in three judicial districts in Belgium during a 2-year period to define the factors that influence the decision to analyse a DNA-trace and formulate guidelines regarding the circumstances in which DNA-traces should be used to affect the case outcome. We also studied how the analysis of the trace influenced the case. What is the added value of the trace for the criminal investigation?
The decision to analyse a trace (or not) is very complex and depending on various factors. In our research, our aim is to model these factors in order to guide the decision-making process and to increase the usefulness of DNA in the criminal investigation.
Keywords: Forensic DNA, Criminal investigation,
Title: How to Delegate the Power to Machine: Predictive Policing, Between Science, Administration and Law.
In this presentation, we observe how predictive policing algorithms comes to exist in science, administration and jurisprudence. Predictive policing thus appears as a moral technology of government judged according to logics specific to each of these three fields: In science, it breaks with the requirement for accurate models, promoting the precision of risk scores; in police organization, it integrates management reform issues, integrating weighting metrics by monetary equivalence of police resources ; in law, if it is not prohibited, predictive policing exists in the form of a metric of acceptable police nuisances (hassle rate or modeling policing harms), enabling calculus rather than the legal principle and the rule of law. Through these three algorithm trajectories, we will follow the moral economies in tension of predictive policing. It will also be a way of understanding the world to which and through which humans hold when they delegate power to machines.
Keywords: predictive policing