Policing – Panel II
Chair: Drohshagen Nadine
, Patrik Manzoni
Title: The Effects of Body-Worn Cameras in Police Service – Findings of An Experimental Study
For some years now, the introduction of body cams in the police has been discussed in Continental European countries. In some police departments in Germany these cameras are already in use. The main reason for their introduction is to reduce violence against police officers, which is in sharp contrast to the USA where the prevention of police use of force is in the focus. Beyond these discussions, there are hardly any experimental studies that evaluated the effects of body cams in Continental Europe. This paper presents the results of such an experimental pilot study that was conducted in the city police of Zurich. A comparison of randomly assigned weeks, in which body cams were used, with weeks in which this was not the case, a slight de-escalating effect leading to less physical violence against police officers was found. In addition, qualitative and quantitative surveys of police officers showed that body cams enjoyed high acceptance and, in particular, are seen most useful to secure evidence of criminal acts.
Keywords: Body cameras, police, experimental study
Title: The Cyberspace as a Criminal Enabler: New Challenges and New Policing Approaches
Beyond what we call “cyber security crimes” lies an equally powerful feature of internet misuse, impacting the way crimes are conducted but also fought and analyzed: the influence of cyberspace in the commission of an offline crime and the expansion of offline illegal activities in the digital world. Cyberspace as a criminal enabler (and enhancer) forced responders to understand the potentials of the online battlefield and adapt themselves to include less traditional and more cooperative forms of policing. From a governance perspective, cooperation can be identified in at least two approaches. The first is vertical incorporation, i.e. the outsourcing of human and capability resources to private enterprises providing technical knowledge and assistance to law enforcement and intelligence authorities. The second is horizontal cooperation, i.e. the creation of secure channels which systematically lay down agile and effective information sharing portals between law enforcement and private companies. Such cooperative approaches though present individual challenges and weaknesses, alongside an overarching legal issue linked with a potential overlap of data protection regimes. Such legal uncertainties call for more legal clarity and the consolidation of viable and scalable forms of policing which draw from the two approaches described above.
Keywords: cybercrime, cybersecurity, intelligence, cooperation, industry, data protection
, Lilian Edwards
Title: Investigations, Corpses and Technology – Is There a Case for the Protection of Deceased’S Privacy?
In our work, we introduce the notion of post-mortem privacy (the protection of deceased’s personal data), arguing that it deserves theoretical and legal consideration for many reasons, such as the volume of personal data the deceased shared, the respect for autonomy and dignity etc. We now see that investigators use deceased’s fingerprints to unlock smartphones. They might be using facial recognition technology soon. This does not seem problematic, as deceased’s privacy in most countries is not protected. Investigations are a legitimate aim to limit this protection where post-mortem privacy is protected. However, other issues arise, which need to be considered before this practice is used more widely. We explore how this affects privacy of others, service and device terms and conditions. The access to devices opens a door to the enormous amount of data, deceased’s as well as their friends’ and family members’. We explore ownership of this data and relevant issues related to the access by investigators. The analysis is more complex if we also consider ToS of providers who hold the data. An analogy could be drawn with the regular use of DNA in criminal investigations. The use of one’s fingerprints would be equally acceptable. On the other hand, the conventional use of DNA does not open the door to the huge volume of deceased’s and others’ data. We thus consider if there is a need for policies that would limit the use of these methods and provide support for investigators.
Keywords: investigations, policing, forensics, data, deceased, post-mortem privacy