Victimology (WG) – Panel VII
Chair: Eva Krulichová
Title: Characteristics of Second Generation of Holocaust Survivors in Former East Berlin
This research analyses whether unique personality traits exist in the second generation of Holocaust survivors in former East Germany, by means of three variables: separation-individuation, intimacy, and Jewish identity.
This research combined qualitative and quantitative research, when the examination is held in the form of interviews and questionnaires delivered to 13 from the second generation, six women and seven men, born and living in Berlin, who witnessed the fall of the Berlin wall (1989) in the eastern part of the city.
The two first variables were only partially substantiated, possibly as a result of the way in which the research was carried out, together with the very small number of subjects. Difficulties in separation individuation and forming intimate relationships were found in an indirect way, and not by means of the subjects' direct answers.
The third variable, regarding Jewish identity, was substantiated in both research tools, and showed that among the subjects, a sort of parallel exists between their Jewish identity, the importance of their family and their Jewish roots.
This research was the first of its kind to be carried out amongst the population of second generation of Holocaust survivors in East Germany and it throws some light onto the lives of the members of the Jewish community in East Berlin, a community which steadfastly preserved its Jewish character in spite of the problems it faced as a result of the communist regime.
Keywords: Holocaust Survivors, Second Generation
Title: Making Sense of Hate Crime in the Uk Post-Brexit Vote Climate
The weeks leading up to the Brexit referendum vote in June 2016 witnessed public and political debates littered with racist and xenophobic rhetoric that dominated discussions about whether the UK should leave the European Union. The flavour of these debate fostered a climate in which, it seemed, some of those with latent prejudice felt emboldened to act upon those prejudices. This paper assesses whether the somewhat contradictory evidence of a rise in levels of hate crime in and around the Brexit referendum vote was an indicator of a genuine and long-lasting rise in the number of hate crimes, and what we may then expect once the UK does eventually leave the European Union. The paper outlines what steps can be taken to tackle prejudice and improve services for those targeted during the protracted period of heightened political and community tensions in which the UK is negotiating its exit from the EU.
Keywords: Hate crime, Brexit, far right, crime statistics, responding to hate
Title: The Impact of Victimization and Feeling of Safety on Subjective Well-Being and Its Change in Time
Subjective well-being is commonly studied with respect to marital and occupational status, income or subjective health. Recently, a growing interest has, however, been also paid to crime-related determinants of subjective well-being. Using eight bi-annual waves of the European Social Survey (ESS) consisting of 22 European countries we examine the association between life satisfaction, victimization experience and feeling of safety and its change in time. The results of multilevel analysis indicate that for victims and people who declare lower feeling of safety the development of life satisfaction is not as pronounced as for those who have not been victimized and feel rather safe. Furthermore, the pseudo panel analysis shows that a change in feeling of safety is associated with a decline in life satisfaction in time while there is no such association with respect to victimization. Nevertheless, when the victimization rate is lagged by 2 years the association becomes significant, which might suggest that there is a delayed effect of victimization rate on the development of life satisfaction in time.
Keywords: victimization, feeling of safety, subjective well-being, European Social Survey
Sellgren Karlsson Monika
, Klara Hradilova Selin
Title: Crimes Against the Elderly – Victimisation and Fear of Crime in the Elderly Population of Sweden
The population of Europe is continually aging and this poses one of the most important challenges to European societies in the future. However, our knowledge of the rate and character of crimes targeted at the elderly remains limited, although the number of such crimes can be expected to increase at the same rate as the elderly population. In 2017, the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention conducted the first national study to examine victimisation among the elderly population in Sweden. Employing a mixed-methods approach, the aim of the study was to examine the rate of victimisation among those aged 65 and over, the character of these crimes, the elderly population’s fear of crime, and the personal experiences of victimisation of a number of elderly people.
The findings suggest that although older people in general are less victimised by crime than younger people, certain types of crime are specifically targeted at the elderly. Moreover, the physical, emotional and economic consequences are often more severe when the victim is above a certain age. The study also suggests that methods must be developed to examine crimes against the most vulnerable groups of elderly people, who suffer from age-related cognitive and physical dysfunctions, and who are difficult to reach using common research methods.
Keywords: Crimes against the elderly, fear of crime, victimology