Development and life-course criminology (WG) – Panel I
Chair: Valeria Saladino
Title: Parent-To-Child Physical Abuse and Youth Aggression: A Longitudinal Analysis of Mediating Pathways
The aim of this study was to analyze direct and indirect effects of parent-to-child physical abuse on self-reported school aggression during early adolescence. In doing so, this study sought to assess the extent to which a range of cross-domain factors (quality of parent-child relationship, commitment to school, low self-control, peer violent victimization, and deviant peer affiliation) medaited this link. The analysis sample comprised 964 early adolescents from one major German city (45,2 % male), who participated in three waves of a longitudinal study. Results from path analysis reveal that while controlling for prior aggression, exposure to parental abuse at 5th grade was directly related to self-reported aggression at 7th grade among girls but not boys. Neither of the cross-domain variables employed mediated the link between parental abuse and self-reported aggression. Time 1 exposure to parental abuse, however, predicted girls’ low self-control at Time 2, which, in turn, was related to deviant peer affiliation. Negative direct effects were furthermore found from girls’ and boys’ parent-child-relationship quality to deviant peer affiliation, while low self-control was positively associated with deviant peer affiliation for both sexes. Finally, boys’ low self-control predicted school aggression. The full model explained males’ aggressive behavior somewhat better than females’. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Keywords: Parental abuse, school aggression, mediation
, Adeem Massarwi
, Mona Khoury-Kassabri
, Rana Eseed
Title: The Correlation Between Delinquent Peers and Perpetration of Serious Physical Violence: Religiosity as a Protective Factor
This study explored the moderating effect of religiosity on the correlation between affiliation with delinquent peers and perpetration of serious physical violence among 2,811 Arab Muslim adolescents (aged 13-18) in Israel. A structured, anonymous, self-report questionnaire was completed by the students in their classrooms. The findings of the study revealed that 28.4% of the participants had perpetrated serious physical violence at least once during the month preceding the study. The findings showed a significant positive correlation between affiliation with delinquent peers and perpetration of serious physical violence. The findings also highlight the critical role of religiosity as a protective factor. The study found that the correlation between affiliation with delinquent peers and perpetration of serious physical violence is weaker among those who identified themselves as religious than among those who recognized themselves as non-religious, after controlling for individual, familial, and social variables.
Keywords: Religiosity, delinquent peers, physical violence, adolescents
Title: Crimes of Prejudice in Poland: Selected Aspects
The problem of prejudice and the ensuing intolerance in Poland exists and frequently results in committing crimes of hatred. Whilst monitoring this kind of crime, a working definition devised by ODIHR - OSCE proves to be quite helpful.
The scale of this phenomenon in Poland – if based on statistics or reports and comparative studies with other types of criminal acts – is quite small, however, it should be kept in mind that the real, underlying number of criminal acts of prejudice is yet unknown. These may include, among others, physical attacks, graffiti, destruction of property, threats, devastation (ie. tombstones, cemeteries, monuments of religious cult, places of commemoration) and language of hatred. The victims may involve representatives of different groups distinguished by common characteristics (race, nationality, ethnic background, language, colour of skin, religion, sex, age, physical or mental disability, sexual orientation).
The source of prejudice may be found in individual experience and social influence; they may be both explicit and implicit in form.
The aim of this presentation is to show the scale of crime of hatred in Poland (on selected examples) and the role of prejudice at their origin. Already in the 1950’s Gordon Allport pinpointed the necessity of a quick response to even the smallest manifestations of prejudice, as the absence of prompt reaction poses a risk of radicalisation of behaviour.
Keywords: prejudice, crime of prejudice, victims
, Lilybeth Fontanesi
, Valeria Verrastro
Title: The Role of Family in Deviant Development: Study of a Sample of Adolescent Italian Prisoners
Violence, family communication and criminal environment might influence adolescents conduct.
Aim of the research is to compare these factors between young prisoners and students to understand the incidence of family relationships and quality of communication in aggressive behavior.
We tested 86 adolescent prisoners, (M=18,72; SD=2,242) and 86 adolescents, (M=18,05; SD=,376) from three high schools in southern Italy.
We administered Socio-anagraphic Questionnaire, Aggression Questionnaire, Attachment Style Questionnaire and Family Communication Scale.
Compared to the deviant behavior, offenders showed a tendency to physical and verbal aggression (65.9%) and brawl in public place (62.8%) while the control group downloads music online (90, 7%).
The background appears criminogenic in the group of inmates. Regard time spent with parents the prisoners report significantly lower percentages (N = 86; 47.7%) than the control group (N = 86; 72.1%) (?2 = 10, 67; p <.01) and show significantly higher percentages of parents with a criminal record or arrests (N = 86; 97.8%) than the control group (N = 86; 2.2%) (?2 = 57, 45; p <.01).
Finally, correlation shows that safe relations with parents promote a good communication and no aggressive behavior (p <.01); while avoidant relationship might generate aggression (p<.01).
These factors are common in both sample and reflect the role of the family in violent and criminal conduct.
Keywords: adolescence, aggression, family, prison, criminal environment